Rebecca Barter

Most people who learned R before the tidyverse have likely started to feel a nibble of pressure to get aboard the tidyverse train. Sadly a fact of human nature is that once you’re comfortable doing something a certain way, it’s hard to find the motivation to learn a different way of doing something that you already know how to do. As someone first learnt R 10 years ago (long before the tidyverse) I’ve been there. Five years ago, I was pushed to stick my little toe into the shallow-end of the tidyverse pool by learning ggplot2, and I never went back.

While the tidyverse is primarily made up of a set of super useful R packages (ggplot2, dplyr, purrr, tidyr, readr, tibble), it is also a way of thinking about implementing “tidy” data analysis. If you combine tidy thinking with the tidy packages, you will inevitably become a master of tidy analysis. From where I float now substantially closer to the deep-end of the tidyverse pool, I would provide the following arguments you as well as to my past self for why it is a good idea to learn the tidyverse:

  • Regardless of whether you think the tidyverse or base R is “better”, it is always a good idea to keep up with what is current. It’s so easy to get left behind. What you learn today will most likely be out-of-date in a year, but next year’s iteration of what is current will almost certainly be built upon today’s iteration. If you make an effort keep up with things as they change, then you can take lots of little easy steps instead of finding yourself needing to take a big difficult jump in a few years.

  • Code written in the tidyverse style is much easier to read, and is more consistent than base R (e.g. the first argument of almost every tidyverse function is the data frame on which it acts, which allows us to make heavy use of something called “piping”). Base R, on the other hand, has a somewhat inconsistent mish-mash of function and argument styles.

  • The humans that make up the tidyverse community are amazing.

Much of the initial efforts of the tidyverse were the brainchild of Hadley Wickham, but these days there are a huge number of people who contribute to, maintain, and develop the tidyverse. The tidyverse is open-source and collaborative (which means that you - yes you - could contribute to it if you wanted to), and is hosted on the tidyverse github: https://github.com/tidyverse.

The goal of this post is to summarise the overall goals of the tidyverse, provide short tutorials on each of the packages that form the tidyverse (and how they play together), and to provide links to additional resources for learning them.

For new tidyverse practitioners, I’d recommend focusing on getting a handle on piping %>%, and learning the dplyr and ggplot2 packages (these form part one of this post). Once you feel comfortable with these core aspects of the tidyverse, you can move onto part two of this two-part series on the tidyverse to learn about the remaining packages.

It is important to remember that the tidyverse is constantly evolving. The best ways to keep up to date with the evolving tidyverse ecosystem is (1) to follow the RStudio blog (https://blog.rstudio.com/), and (2) start following R people on twitter. Mara Averick (@dataandme) and Hadley Wickham (@hadleywickham) are good people to follow. A great resource for learning about the tidyverse in more detail is R for Data Science by Garrett Grolemund and Hadley Wickham.

Entering the tidyverse

The fundamental object type of the tidyverse is the data frame (which, once you get a little deeper into the tidyverse ecosystem, becomes a “tibble” - more on that later in part 2). Thus the starting point for getting comfortable with the tidyverse is to always store your data as a data frame (rather than as a matrix or as vectors) with informative string-based column names where words are preferably separated by underscores (rather than periods).

The tidyverse is not simply a set of functions that replace base R functions. The tidyverse represents a way of thinking about how you conduct your data analysis:

  • Think of your data frame as the universe, and the columns of your data frame as the objects in your universe that you can explore, manipulate and model.

  • When coding in base R, it is very common to define many intermediate objects and modified versions of the same data frame (or data object). When coding in the tidyverse, the key is to minimize defining new data objects. Instead, focus on manipulating your current data frame and just printing the output of your manipulations (e.g. a summary or plot). Only create new data objects in your R environment if you will be using both the original data object and the new data object in your later analyses.

To load the tidyverse packages, you could install them all individually (once):

# only ever run once to install the individual packages on your system
install.packages("dplyr")
install.packages("ggplot2")
install.packages("purrr")
install.packages("tidyr")
install.packages("readr")
install.packages("tibble")

and then load them all into your session individually every time:

library(dplyr)
library(ggplot2)
library(purrr)
library(tidyr)
library(readr)
library(tibble)

or, you could just install and load the tidyverse package, which will do all of the above for you:

# only ever run once to install the tidyverse on your system
install.packages("tidyverse")
library(tidyverse)

which is much easier.

Throughout this tutorial, we will use the gapminder dataset that can be loaded directly if you’re connected to the internet.

My general workflow involves loading the original data and saving it as an object with a meaningful name and an _orig suffix. I then define a copy of the original dataset without the _orig suffix. Having an original copy of my data in my environment means that it is easy to check that my manipulations do what I expected. I will make direct data cleaning modifications to the gapminder data frame, but will never edit the gapminder_orig data frame.

# to download the data directly:
gapminder_orig <- read.csv("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/swcarpentry/r-novice-gapminder/gh-pages/_episodes_rmd/data/gapminder-FiveYearData.csv")
# define a copy of the original dataset that we will clean and play with 
gapminder <- gapminder_orig

The gapminder dataset has 1704 rows containing information on population, life expectancy and GDP per capita by year and country.

A “tidy” data frame is one where every row is a single observational unit (in this case, indexed by country and year), and every column corresponds to a variable that is measured for each observational unit (in this case, for each country and year, a measurement is made for population, continent, life expectancy and GDP). If you’d like to learn more about “tidy data”, I highly recommend reading Hadley Wickham’s tidy data article.

dim(gapminder)
## [1] 1704    6
head(gapminder)
##       country year      pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap
## 1 Afghanistan 1952  8425333      Asia  28.801  779.4453
## 2 Afghanistan 1957  9240934      Asia  30.332  820.8530
## 3 Afghanistan 1962 10267083      Asia  31.997  853.1007
## 4 Afghanistan 1967 11537966      Asia  34.020  836.1971
## 5 Afghanistan 1972 13079460      Asia  36.088  739.9811
## 6 Afghanistan 1977 14880372      Asia  38.438  786.1134

Now that you’ve loaded the tidyverse and the gapminder data, you’re are ready to learn about our first tidy analysis tool: the pipe.

Piping: %>%

Pipes are the workhorse of tidy analyses. Piping allows you to chain together many functions, eliminating the need to define multiple intermediate objects to use as the input to subsequent functions. In my eyes, pipes are also the primary reason that tidyverse code is fundamentally easier to read than base R code.

I always read the pipe symbol, %>%, in my head as “and then”. Consider the following code. Try to figure out what the following code will produce (even if you’ve never seen the filter and select dplyr functions before - I’ll formally introduce these later).

gapminder %>%
  filter(continent == "Americas", year == "2007") %>%
  select(country, lifeExp)

I read this code in my head as: take the gapminder dataset and then filter to the “Americas” continents and the year 2007, and then select the country and life expectancy variables.

Running this code first filters the data frame only to the rows whose continent value is “Americas” and whose year value is “2007”, and then it shows you the country and lifeExp columns for those rows. Run it yourself to see.

# take the gapminder dataset
gapminder %>%
  # and filter to the rows whose continent is Americas and year is 2007
  filter(continent == "Americas", year == 2007) %>%
  # show the country and lifeExp values for these rows
  select(country, lifeExp)
##                country lifeExp
## 1            Argentina  75.320
## 2              Bolivia  65.554
## 3               Brazil  72.390
## 4               Canada  80.653
## 5                Chile  78.553
## 6             Colombia  72.889
## 7           Costa Rica  78.782
## 8                 Cuba  78.273
## 9   Dominican Republic  72.235
## 10             Ecuador  74.994
## 11         El Salvador  71.878
## 12           Guatemala  70.259
## 13               Haiti  60.916
## 14            Honduras  70.198
## 15             Jamaica  72.567
## 16              Mexico  76.195
## 17           Nicaragua  72.899
## 18              Panama  75.537
## 19            Paraguay  71.752
## 20                Peru  71.421
## 21         Puerto Rico  78.746
## 22 Trinidad and Tobago  69.819
## 23       United States  78.242
## 24             Uruguay  76.384
## 25           Venezuela  73.747

To become a piping expert you’ll need to have a firm grasp on what it’s actually doing. The pipe uses the object on the left-hand-side of the %>% as the first argument of the function on the right-hand-side.

For instance, the un-piped version of

gapminder %>%
  filter(continent == "Americas", year == 2007)

is

filter(gapminder, continent == "Americas", year == 2007)

If you were determined not to use piping, but you wanted to do many manipulations, your code would very quickly get messy and difficult to read. In the style of base R, the common way of making code more readable is to define intermediate objects.

gapminder_filtered <- filter(gapminder, continent == "Americas", year == 2007)
gapminder_filtered_selected <- select(gapminder_filtered, country, lifeExp)
gapminder_filtered_selected
##                country lifeExp
## 1            Argentina  75.320
## 2              Bolivia  65.554
## 3               Brazil  72.390
## 4               Canada  80.653
## 5                Chile  78.553
## 6             Colombia  72.889
## 7           Costa Rica  78.782
## 8                 Cuba  78.273
## 9   Dominican Republic  72.235
## 10             Ecuador  74.994
## 11         El Salvador  71.878
## 12           Guatemala  70.259
## 13               Haiti  60.916
## 14            Honduras  70.198
## 15             Jamaica  72.567
## 16              Mexico  76.195
## 17           Nicaragua  72.899
## 18              Panama  75.537
## 19            Paraguay  71.752
## 20                Peru  71.421
## 21         Puerto Rico  78.746
## 22 Trinidad and Tobago  69.819
## 23       United States  78.242
## 24             Uruguay  76.384
## 25           Venezuela  73.747

To me, the piped version is infinitely more clear, and simultaneously got rid of the need to define any intermediate objects that I would have needed to keep track of while reading the code. Once I got more and more comfortable with piping, I started to find that pretty much all of my code uses pipes.

Data manipulation: dplyr

The filter() and select() functions that I just introduced are examples of data manipulation functions from the dplyr package.

In the tidyverse, you will almost never use the [,] indexing nor the $ data frame column indexing that are pervasive throughout base R code. Indexing in dplyr is done using filter() for rows and select() for columns.

You may have noticed that the variable names continent, year, country, lifeExp that were used inside the filter() and select() functions were unquoted. One of the key components of the tidyverse is thinking of your universe as the data frame, and the columns of the data frame as variables or objects that you can play with. Just like how you don’t need to quote variable names in your environment to play with them, you usually don’t need to quote data frame variables (columns) inside tidyverse functions.

Let’s contrast our piped dplyr code

# take the gapminder dataset
gapminder %>%
  # and filter to the rows whose continent is Americas and year is 2007
  filter(continent == "Americas", year == 2007) %>%
  # show the country and lifeExp values for these rows
  select(country, lifeExp)

with one potential version of equivalent base R code:

# identify which rows correspond to the Americas and the year 2007
continent_year_index <- which(gapminder["continent"] == "Americas" & gapminder["year"] == 2007)
# pull only those rows and show the country and life expectency columns
gapminder[continent_year_index, c("country", "lifeExp")]

There are a few key differences

  • The variable names are quoted in the base R version but not in the dplyr version

  • An intermediate row index variable was defined in the base R version but not in the dplyr version

The primary dplyr functions are

select: select columns

The arguments of the select function specify which data frame variables should be kept. select() is like indexing columns by name. You do not need to quote the column names (but you can if you want to).

gapminder %>% 
  select(country, gdpPercap) 
##                       country   gdpPercap
## 1                 Afghanistan    779.4453
## 2                 Afghanistan    820.8530
## 3                 Afghanistan    853.1007
## 4                 Afghanistan    836.1971
## 5                 Afghanistan    739.9811
## 6                 Afghanistan    786.1134
## 7                 Afghanistan    978.0114
## 8                 Afghanistan    852.3959
## 9                 Afghanistan    649.3414
## 10                Afghanistan    635.3414
## 11                Afghanistan    726.7341
## 12                Afghanistan    974.5803
## 13                    Albania   1601.0561
## 14                    Albania   1942.2842
## 15                    Albania   2312.8890
## 16                    Albania   2760.1969
## 17                    Albania   3313.4222
## 18                    Albania   3533.0039
## 19                    Albania   3630.8807
## 20                    Albania   3738.9327
## 21                    Albania   2497.4379
## 22                    Albania   3193.0546
## 23                    Albania   4604.2117
## 24                    Albania   5937.0295
## 25                    Algeria   2449.0082
## 26                    Algeria   3013.9760
## 27                    Algeria   2550.8169
## 28                    Algeria   3246.9918
## 29                    Algeria   4182.6638
## 30                    Algeria   4910.4168
## 31                    Algeria   5745.1602
## 32                    Algeria   5681.3585
## 33                    Algeria   5023.2166
## 34                    Algeria   4797.2951
## 35                    Algeria   5288.0404
## 36                    Algeria   6223.3675
## 37                     Angola   3520.6103
## 38                     Angola   3827.9405
## 39                     Angola   4269.2767
## 40                     Angola   5522.7764
## 41                     Angola   5473.2880
## 42                     Angola   3008.6474
## 43                     Angola   2756.9537
## 44                     Angola   2430.2083
## 45                     Angola   2627.8457
## 46                     Angola   2277.1409
## 47                     Angola   2773.2873
## 48                     Angola   4797.2313
## 49                  Argentina   5911.3151
## 50                  Argentina   6856.8562
## 51                  Argentina   7133.1660
## 52                  Argentina   8052.9530
## 53                  Argentina   9443.0385
## 54                  Argentina  10079.0267
## 55                  Argentina   8997.8974
## 56                  Argentina   9139.6714
## 57                  Argentina   9308.4187
## 58                  Argentina  10967.2820
## 59                  Argentina   8797.6407
## 60                  Argentina  12779.3796
## 61                  Australia  10039.5956
## 62                  Australia  10949.6496
## 63                  Australia  12217.2269
## 64                  Australia  14526.1246
## 65                  Australia  16788.6295
## 66                  Australia  18334.1975
## 67                  Australia  19477.0093
## 68                  Australia  21888.8890
## 69                  Australia  23424.7668
## 70                  Australia  26997.9366
## 71                  Australia  30687.7547
## 72                  Australia  34435.3674
## 73                    Austria   6137.0765
## 74                    Austria   8842.5980
## 75                    Austria  10750.7211
## 76                    Austria  12834.6024
## 77                    Austria  16661.6256
## 78                    Austria  19749.4223
## 79                    Austria  21597.0836
## 80                    Austria  23687.8261
## 81                    Austria  27042.0187
## 82                    Austria  29095.9207
## 83                    Austria  32417.6077
## 84                    Austria  36126.4927
## 85                    Bahrain   9867.0848
## 86                    Bahrain  11635.7995
## 87                    Bahrain  12753.2751
## 88                    Bahrain  14804.6727
## 89                    Bahrain  18268.6584
## 90                    Bahrain  19340.1020
## 91                    Bahrain  19211.1473
## 92                    Bahrain  18524.0241
## 93                    Bahrain  19035.5792
## 94                    Bahrain  20292.0168
## 95                    Bahrain  23403.5593
## 96                    Bahrain  29796.0483
## 97                 Bangladesh    684.2442
## 98                 Bangladesh    661.6375
## 99                 Bangladesh    686.3416
## 100                Bangladesh    721.1861
## 101                Bangladesh    630.2336
## 102                Bangladesh    659.8772
## 103                Bangladesh    676.9819
## 104                Bangladesh    751.9794
## 105                Bangladesh    837.8102
## 106                Bangladesh    972.7700
## 107                Bangladesh   1136.3904
## 108                Bangladesh   1391.2538
## 109                   Belgium   8343.1051
## 110                   Belgium   9714.9606
## 111                   Belgium  10991.2068
## 112                   Belgium  13149.0412
## 113                   Belgium  16672.1436
## 114                   Belgium  19117.9745
## 115                   Belgium  20979.8459
## 116                   Belgium  22525.5631
## 117                   Belgium  25575.5707
## 118                   Belgium  27561.1966
## 119                   Belgium  30485.8838
## 120                   Belgium  33692.6051
## 121                     Benin   1062.7522
## 122                     Benin    959.6011
## 123                     Benin    949.4991
## 124                     Benin   1035.8314
## 125                     Benin   1085.7969
## 126                     Benin   1029.1613
## 127                     Benin   1277.8976
## 128                     Benin   1225.8560
## 129                     Benin   1191.2077
## 130                     Benin   1232.9753
## 131                     Benin   1372.8779
## 132                     Benin   1441.2849
## 133                   Bolivia   2677.3263
## 134                   Bolivia   2127.6863
## 135                   Bolivia   2180.9725
## 136                   Bolivia   2586.8861
## 137                   Bolivia   2980.3313
## 138                   Bolivia   3548.0978
## 139                   Bolivia   3156.5105
## 140                   Bolivia   2753.6915
## 141                   Bolivia   2961.6997
## 142                   Bolivia   3326.1432
## 143                   Bolivia   3413.2627
## 144                   Bolivia   3822.1371
## 145    Bosnia and Herzegovina    973.5332
## 146    Bosnia and Herzegovina   1353.9892
## 147    Bosnia and Herzegovina   1709.6837
## 148    Bosnia and Herzegovina   2172.3524
## 149    Bosnia and Herzegovina   2860.1698
## 150    Bosnia and Herzegovina   3528.4813
## 151    Bosnia and Herzegovina   4126.6132
## 152    Bosnia and Herzegovina   4314.1148
## 153    Bosnia and Herzegovina   2546.7814
## 154    Bosnia and Herzegovina   4766.3559
## 155    Bosnia and Herzegovina   6018.9752
## 156    Bosnia and Herzegovina   7446.2988
## 157                  Botswana    851.2411
## 158                  Botswana    918.2325
## 159                  Botswana    983.6540
## 160                  Botswana   1214.7093
## 161                  Botswana   2263.6111
## 162                  Botswana   3214.8578
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## 165                  Botswana   7954.1116
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## 167                  Botswana  11003.6051
## 168                  Botswana  12569.8518
## 169                    Brazil   2108.9444
## 170                    Brazil   2487.3660
## 171                    Brazil   3336.5858
## 172                    Brazil   3429.8644
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## 174                    Brazil   6660.1187
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## 176                    Brazil   7807.0958
## 177                    Brazil   6950.2830
## 178                    Brazil   7957.9808
## 179                    Brazil   8131.2128
## 180                    Brazil   9065.8008
## 181                  Bulgaria   2444.2866
## 182                  Bulgaria   3008.6707
## 183                  Bulgaria   4254.3378
## 184                  Bulgaria   5577.0028
## 185                  Bulgaria   6597.4944
## 186                  Bulgaria   7612.2404
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## 188                  Bulgaria   8239.8548
## 189                  Bulgaria   6302.6234
## 190                  Bulgaria   5970.3888
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## 192                  Bulgaria  10680.7928
## 193              Burkina Faso    543.2552
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## 205                   Burundi    339.2965
## 206                   Burundi    379.5646
## 207                   Burundi    355.2032
## 208                   Burundi    412.9775
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## 211                   Burundi    559.6032
## 212                   Burundi    621.8188
## 213                   Burundi    631.6999
## 214                   Burundi    463.1151
## 215                   Burundi    446.4035
## 216                   Burundi    430.0707
## 217                  Cambodia    368.4693
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## 241                    Canada  11367.1611
## 242                    Canada  12489.9501
## 243                    Canada  13462.4855
## 244                    Canada  16076.5880
## 245                    Canada  18970.5709
## 246                    Canada  22090.8831
## 247                    Canada  22898.7921
## 248                    Canada  26626.5150
## 249                    Canada  26342.8843
## 250                    Canada  28954.9259
## 251                    Canada  33328.9651
## 252                    Canada  36319.2350
## 253  Central African Republic   1071.3107
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## 265                      Chad   1178.6659
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## 276                      Chad   1704.0637
## 277                     Chile   3939.9788
## 278                     Chile   4315.6227
## 279                     Chile   4519.0943
## 280                     Chile   5106.6543
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## 285                     Chile   7596.1260
## 286                     Chile  10118.0532
## 287                     Chile  10778.7838
## 288                     Chile  13171.6388
## 289                     China    400.4486
## 290                     China    575.9870
## 291                     China    487.6740
## 292                     China    612.7057
## 293                     China    676.9001
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## 299                     China   3119.2809
## 300                     China   4959.1149
## 301                  Colombia   2144.1151
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## 325           Congo Dem. Rep.    780.5423
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## 328           Congo Dem. Rep.    861.5932
## 329           Congo Dem. Rep.    904.8961
## 330           Congo Dem. Rep.    795.7573
## 331           Congo Dem. Rep.    673.7478
## 332           Congo Dem. Rep.    672.7748
## 333           Congo Dem. Rep.    457.7192
## 334           Congo Dem. Rep.    312.1884
## 335           Congo Dem. Rep.    241.1659
## 336           Congo Dem. Rep.    277.5519
## 337                Congo Rep.   2125.6214
## 338                Congo Rep.   2315.0566
## 339                Congo Rep.   2464.7832
## 340                Congo Rep.   2677.9396
## 341                Congo Rep.   3213.1527
## 342                Congo Rep.   3259.1790
## 343                Congo Rep.   4879.5075
## 344                Congo Rep.   4201.1949
## 345                Congo Rep.   4016.2395
## 346                Congo Rep.   3484.1644
## 347                Congo Rep.   3484.0620
## 348                Congo Rep.   3632.5578
## 349                Costa Rica   2627.0095
## 350                Costa Rica   2990.0108
## 351                Costa Rica   3460.9370
## 352                Costa Rica   4161.7278
## 353                Costa Rica   5118.1469
## 354                Costa Rica   5926.8770
## 355                Costa Rica   5262.7348
## 356                Costa Rica   5629.9153
## 357                Costa Rica   6160.4163
## 358                Costa Rica   6677.0453
## 359                Costa Rica   7723.4472
## 360                Costa Rica   9645.0614
## 361             Cote d'Ivoire   1388.5947
## 362             Cote d'Ivoire   1500.8959
## 363             Cote d'Ivoire   1728.8694
## 364             Cote d'Ivoire   2052.0505
## 365             Cote d'Ivoire   2378.2011
## 366             Cote d'Ivoire   2517.7365
## 367             Cote d'Ivoire   2602.7102
## 368             Cote d'Ivoire   2156.9561
## 369             Cote d'Ivoire   1648.0738
## 370             Cote d'Ivoire   1786.2654
## 371             Cote d'Ivoire   1648.8008
## 372             Cote d'Ivoire   1544.7501
## 373                   Croatia   3119.2365
## 374                   Croatia   4338.2316
## 375                   Croatia   5477.8900
## 376                   Croatia   6960.2979
## 377                   Croatia   9164.0901
## 378                   Croatia  11305.3852
## 379                   Croatia  13221.8218
## 380                   Croatia  13822.5839
## 381                   Croatia   8447.7949
## 382                   Croatia   9875.6045
## 383                   Croatia  11628.3890
## 384                   Croatia  14619.2227
## 385                      Cuba   5586.5388
## 386                      Cuba   6092.1744
## 387                      Cuba   5180.7559
## 388                      Cuba   5690.2680
## 389                      Cuba   5305.4453
## 390                      Cuba   6380.4950
## 391                      Cuba   7316.9181
## 392                      Cuba   7532.9248
## 393                      Cuba   5592.8440
## 394                      Cuba   5431.9904
## 395                      Cuba   6340.6467
## 396                      Cuba   8948.1029
## 397            Czech Republic   6876.1403
## 398            Czech Republic   8256.3439
## 399            Czech Republic  10136.8671
## 400            Czech Republic  11399.4449
## 401            Czech Republic  13108.4536
## 402            Czech Republic  14800.1606
## 403            Czech Republic  15377.2285
## 404            Czech Republic  16310.4434
## 405            Czech Republic  14297.0212
## 406            Czech Republic  16048.5142
## 407            Czech Republic  17596.2102
## 408            Czech Republic  22833.3085
## 409                   Denmark   9692.3852
## 410                   Denmark  11099.6593
## 411                   Denmark  13583.3135
## 412                   Denmark  15937.2112
## 413                   Denmark  18866.2072
## 414                   Denmark  20422.9015
## 415                   Denmark  21688.0405
## 416                   Denmark  25116.1758
## 417                   Denmark  26406.7399
## 418                   Denmark  29804.3457
## 419                   Denmark  32166.5001
## 420                   Denmark  35278.4187
## 421                  Djibouti   2669.5295
## 422                  Djibouti   2864.9691
## 423                  Djibouti   3020.9893
## 424                  Djibouti   3020.0505
## 425                  Djibouti   3694.2124
## 426                  Djibouti   3081.7610
## 427                  Djibouti   2879.4681
## 428                  Djibouti   2880.1026
## 429                  Djibouti   2377.1562
## 430                  Djibouti   1895.0170
## 431                  Djibouti   1908.2609
## 432                  Djibouti   2082.4816
## 433        Dominican Republic   1397.7171
## 434        Dominican Republic   1544.4030
## 435        Dominican Republic   1662.1374
## 436        Dominican Republic   1653.7230
## 437        Dominican Republic   2189.8745
## 438        Dominican Republic   2681.9889
## 439        Dominican Republic   2861.0924
## 440        Dominican Republic   2899.8422
## 441        Dominican Republic   3044.2142
## 442        Dominican Republic   3614.1013
## 443        Dominican Republic   4563.8082
## 444        Dominican Republic   6025.3748
## 445                   Ecuador   3522.1107
## 446                   Ecuador   3780.5467
## 447                   Ecuador   4086.1141
## 448                   Ecuador   4579.0742
## 449                   Ecuador   5280.9947
## 450                   Ecuador   6679.6233
## 451                   Ecuador   7213.7913
## 452                   Ecuador   6481.7770
## 453                   Ecuador   7103.7026
## 454                   Ecuador   7429.4559
## 455                   Ecuador   5773.0445
## 456                   Ecuador   6873.2623
## 457                     Egypt   1418.8224
## 458                     Egypt   1458.9153
## 459                     Egypt   1693.3359
## 460                     Egypt   1814.8807
## 461                     Egypt   2024.0081
## 462                     Egypt   2785.4936
## 463                     Egypt   3503.7296
## 464                     Egypt   3885.4607
## 465                     Egypt   3794.7552
## 466                     Egypt   4173.1818
## 467                     Egypt   4754.6044
## 468                     Egypt   5581.1810
## 469               El Salvador   3048.3029
## 470               El Salvador   3421.5232
## 471               El Salvador   3776.8036
## 472               El Salvador   4358.5954
## 473               El Salvador   4520.2460
## 474               El Salvador   5138.9224
## 475               El Salvador   4098.3442
## 476               El Salvador   4140.4421
## 477               El Salvador   4444.2317
## 478               El Salvador   5154.8255
## 479               El Salvador   5351.5687
## 480               El Salvador   5728.3535
## 481         Equatorial Guinea    375.6431
## 482         Equatorial Guinea    426.0964
## 483         Equatorial Guinea    582.8420
## 484         Equatorial Guinea    915.5960
## 485         Equatorial Guinea    672.4123
## 486         Equatorial Guinea    958.5668
## 487         Equatorial Guinea    927.8253
## 488         Equatorial Guinea    966.8968
## 489         Equatorial Guinea   1132.0550
## 490         Equatorial Guinea   2814.4808
## 491         Equatorial Guinea   7703.4959
## 492         Equatorial Guinea  12154.0897
## 493                   Eritrea    328.9406
## 494                   Eritrea    344.1619
## 495                   Eritrea    380.9958
## 496                   Eritrea    468.7950
## 497                   Eritrea    514.3242
## 498                   Eritrea    505.7538
## 499                   Eritrea    524.8758
## 500                   Eritrea    521.1341
## 501                   Eritrea    582.8585
## 502                   Eritrea    913.4708
## 503                   Eritrea    765.3500
## 504                   Eritrea    641.3695
## 505                  Ethiopia    362.1463
## 506                  Ethiopia    378.9042
## 507                  Ethiopia    419.4564
## 508                  Ethiopia    516.1186
## 509                  Ethiopia    566.2439
## 510                  Ethiopia    556.8084
## 511                  Ethiopia    577.8607
## 512                  Ethiopia    573.7413
## 513                  Ethiopia    421.3535
## 514                  Ethiopia    515.8894
## 515                  Ethiopia    530.0535
## 516                  Ethiopia    690.8056
## 517                   Finland   6424.5191
## 518                   Finland   7545.4154
## 519                   Finland   9371.8426
## 520                   Finland  10921.6363
## 521                   Finland  14358.8759
## 522                   Finland  15605.4228
## 523                   Finland  18533.1576
## 524                   Finland  21141.0122
## 525                   Finland  20647.1650
## 526                   Finland  23723.9502
## 527                   Finland  28204.5906
## 528                   Finland  33207.0844
## 529                    France   7029.8093
## 530                    France   8662.8349
## 531                    France  10560.4855
## 532                    France  12999.9177
## 533                    France  16107.1917
## 534                    France  18292.6351
## 535                    France  20293.8975
## 536                    France  22066.4421
## 537                    France  24703.7961
## 538                    France  25889.7849
## 539                    France  28926.0323
## 540                    France  30470.0167
## 541                     Gabon   4293.4765
## 542                     Gabon   4976.1981
## 543                     Gabon   6631.4592
## 544                     Gabon   8358.7620
## 545                     Gabon  11401.9484
## 546                     Gabon  21745.5733
## 547                     Gabon  15113.3619
## 548                     Gabon  11864.4084
## 549                     Gabon  13522.1575
## 550                     Gabon  14722.8419
## 551                     Gabon  12521.7139
## 552                     Gabon  13206.4845
## 553                    Gambia    485.2307
## 554                    Gambia    520.9267
## 555                    Gambia    599.6503
## 556                    Gambia    734.7829
## 557                    Gambia    756.0868
## 558                    Gambia    884.7553
## 559                    Gambia    835.8096
## 560                    Gambia    611.6589
## 561                    Gambia    665.6244
## 562                    Gambia    653.7302
## 563                    Gambia    660.5856
## 564                    Gambia    752.7497
## 565                   Germany   7144.1144
## 566                   Germany  10187.8267
## 567                   Germany  12902.4629
## 568                   Germany  14745.6256
## 569                   Germany  18016.1803
## 570                   Germany  20512.9212
## 571                   Germany  22031.5327
## 572                   Germany  24639.1857
## 573                   Germany  26505.3032
## 574                   Germany  27788.8842
## 575                   Germany  30035.8020
## 576                   Germany  32170.3744
## 577                     Ghana    911.2989
## 578                     Ghana   1043.5615
## 579                     Ghana   1190.0411
## 580                     Ghana   1125.6972
## 581                     Ghana   1178.2237
## 582                     Ghana    993.2240
## 583                     Ghana    876.0326
## 584                     Ghana    847.0061
## 585                     Ghana    925.0602
## 586                     Ghana   1005.2458
## 587                     Ghana   1111.9846
## 588                     Ghana   1327.6089
## 589                    Greece   3530.6901
## 590                    Greece   4916.2999
## 591                    Greece   6017.1907
## 592                    Greece   8513.0970
## 593                    Greece  12724.8296
## 594                    Greece  14195.5243
## 595                    Greece  15268.4209
## 596                    Greece  16120.5284
## 597                    Greece  17541.4963
## 598                    Greece  18747.6981
## 599                    Greece  22514.2548
## 600                    Greece  27538.4119
## 601                 Guatemala   2428.2378
## 602                 Guatemala   2617.1560
## 603                 Guatemala   2750.3644
## 604                 Guatemala   3242.5311
## 605                 Guatemala   4031.4083
## 606                 Guatemala   4879.9927
## 607                 Guatemala   4820.4948
## 608                 Guatemala   4246.4860
## 609                 Guatemala   4439.4508
## 610                 Guatemala   4684.3138
## 611                 Guatemala   4858.3475
## 612                 Guatemala   5186.0500
## 613                    Guinea    510.1965
## 614                    Guinea    576.2670
## 615                    Guinea    686.3737
## 616                    Guinea    708.7595
## 617                    Guinea    741.6662
## 618                    Guinea    874.6859
## 619                    Guinea    857.2504
## 620                    Guinea    805.5725
## 621                    Guinea    794.3484
## 622                    Guinea    869.4498
## 623                    Guinea    945.5836
## 624                    Guinea    942.6542
## 625             Guinea-Bissau    299.8503
## 626             Guinea-Bissau    431.7905
## 627             Guinea-Bissau    522.0344
## 628             Guinea-Bissau    715.5806
## 629             Guinea-Bissau    820.2246
## 630             Guinea-Bissau    764.7260
## 631             Guinea-Bissau    838.1240
## 632             Guinea-Bissau    736.4154
## 633             Guinea-Bissau    745.5399
## 634             Guinea-Bissau    796.6645
## 635             Guinea-Bissau    575.7047
## 636             Guinea-Bissau    579.2317
## 637                     Haiti   1840.3669
## 638                     Haiti   1726.8879
## 639                     Haiti   1796.5890
## 640                     Haiti   1452.0577
## 641                     Haiti   1654.4569
## 642                     Haiti   1874.2989
## 643                     Haiti   2011.1595
## 644                     Haiti   1823.0160
## 645                     Haiti   1456.3095
## 646                     Haiti   1341.7269
## 647                     Haiti   1270.3649
## 648                     Haiti   1201.6372
## 649                  Honduras   2194.9262
## 650                  Honduras   2220.4877
## 651                  Honduras   2291.1568
## 652                  Honduras   2538.2694
## 653                  Honduras   2529.8423
## 654                  Honduras   3203.2081
## 655                  Honduras   3121.7608
## 656                  Honduras   3023.0967
## 657                  Honduras   3081.6946
## 658                  Honduras   3160.4549
## 659                  Honduras   3099.7287
## 660                  Honduras   3548.3308
## 661           Hong Kong China   3054.4212
## 662           Hong Kong China   3629.0765
## 663           Hong Kong China   4692.6483
## 664           Hong Kong China   6197.9628
## 665           Hong Kong China   8315.9281
## 666           Hong Kong China  11186.1413
## 667           Hong Kong China  14560.5305
## 668           Hong Kong China  20038.4727
## 669           Hong Kong China  24757.6030
## 670           Hong Kong China  28377.6322
## 671           Hong Kong China  30209.0152
## 672           Hong Kong China  39724.9787
## 673                   Hungary   5263.6738
## 674                   Hungary   6040.1800
## 675                   Hungary   7550.3599
## 676                   Hungary   9326.6447
## 677                   Hungary  10168.6561
## 678                   Hungary  11674.8374
## 679                   Hungary  12545.9907
## 680                   Hungary  12986.4800
## 681                   Hungary  10535.6285
## 682                   Hungary  11712.7768
## 683                   Hungary  14843.9356
## 684                   Hungary  18008.9444
## 685                   Iceland   7267.6884
## 686                   Iceland   9244.0014
## 687                   Iceland  10350.1591
## 688                   Iceland  13319.8957
## 689                   Iceland  15798.0636
## 690                   Iceland  19654.9625
## 691                   Iceland  23269.6075
## 692                   Iceland  26923.2063
## 693                   Iceland  25144.3920
## 694                   Iceland  28061.0997
## 695                   Iceland  31163.2020
## 696                   Iceland  36180.7892
## 697                     India    546.5657
## 698                     India    590.0620
## 699                     India    658.3472
## 700                     India    700.7706
## 701                     India    724.0325
## 702                     India    813.3373
## 703                     India    855.7235
## 704                     India    976.5127
## 705                     India   1164.4068
## 706                     India   1458.8174
## 707                     India   1746.7695
## 708                     India   2452.2104
## 709                 Indonesia    749.6817
## 710                 Indonesia    858.9003
## 711                 Indonesia    849.2898
## 712                 Indonesia    762.4318
## 713                 Indonesia   1111.1079
## 714                 Indonesia   1382.7021
## 715                 Indonesia   1516.8730
## 716                 Indonesia   1748.3570
## 717                 Indonesia   2383.1409
## 718                 Indonesia   3119.3356
## 719                 Indonesia   2873.9129
## 720                 Indonesia   3540.6516
## 721                      Iran   3035.3260
## 722                      Iran   3290.2576
## 723                      Iran   4187.3298
## 724                      Iran   5906.7318
## 725                      Iran   9613.8186
## 726                      Iran  11888.5951
## 727                      Iran   7608.3346
## 728                      Iran   6642.8814
## 729                      Iran   7235.6532
## 730                      Iran   8263.5903
## 731                      Iran   9240.7620
## 732                      Iran  11605.7145
## 733                      Iraq   4129.7661
## 734                      Iraq   6229.3336
## 735                      Iraq   8341.7378
## 736                      Iraq   8931.4598
## 737                      Iraq   9576.0376
## 738                      Iraq  14688.2351
## 739                      Iraq  14517.9071
## 740                      Iraq  11643.5727
## 741                      Iraq   3745.6407
## 742                      Iraq   3076.2398
## 743                      Iraq   4390.7173
## 744                      Iraq   4471.0619
## 745                   Ireland   5210.2803
## 746                   Ireland   5599.0779
## 747                   Ireland   6631.5973
## 748                   Ireland   7655.5690
## 749                   Ireland   9530.7729
## 750                   Ireland  11150.9811
## 751                   Ireland  12618.3214
## 752                   Ireland  13872.8665
## 753                   Ireland  17558.8155
## 754                   Ireland  24521.9471
## 755                   Ireland  34077.0494
## 756                   Ireland  40675.9964
## 757                    Israel   4086.5221
## 758                    Israel   5385.2785
## 759                    Israel   7105.6307
## 760                    Israel   8393.7414
## 761                    Israel  12786.9322
## 762                    Israel  13306.6192
## 763                    Israel  15367.0292
## 764                    Israel  17122.4799
## 765                    Israel  18051.5225
## 766                    Israel  20896.6092
## 767                    Israel  21905.5951
## 768                    Israel  25523.2771
## 769                     Italy   4931.4042
## 770                     Italy   6248.6562
## 771                     Italy   8243.5823
## 772                     Italy  10022.4013
## 773                     Italy  12269.2738
## 774                     Italy  14255.9847
## 775                     Italy  16537.4835
## 776                     Italy  19207.2348
## 777                     Italy  22013.6449
## 778                     Italy  24675.0245
## 779                     Italy  27968.0982
## 780                     Italy  28569.7197
## 781                   Jamaica   2898.5309
## 782                   Jamaica   4756.5258
## 783                   Jamaica   5246.1075
## 784                   Jamaica   6124.7035
## 785                   Jamaica   7433.8893
## 786                   Jamaica   6650.1956
## 787                   Jamaica   6068.0513
## 788                   Jamaica   6351.2375
## 789                   Jamaica   7404.9237
## 790                   Jamaica   7121.9247
## 791                   Jamaica   6994.7749
## 792                   Jamaica   7320.8803
## 793                     Japan   3216.9563
## 794                     Japan   4317.6944
## 795                     Japan   6576.6495
## 796                     Japan   9847.7886
## 797                     Japan  14778.7864
## 798                     Japan  16610.3770
## 799                     Japan  19384.1057
## 800                     Japan  22375.9419
## 801                     Japan  26824.8951
## 802                     Japan  28816.5850
## 803                     Japan  28604.5919
## 804                     Japan  31656.0681
## 805                    Jordan   1546.9078
## 806                    Jordan   1886.0806
## 807                    Jordan   2348.0092
## 808                    Jordan   2741.7963
## 809                    Jordan   2110.8563
## 810                    Jordan   2852.3516
## 811                    Jordan   4161.4160
## 812                    Jordan   4448.6799
## 813                    Jordan   3431.5936
## 814                    Jordan   3645.3796
## 815                    Jordan   3844.9172
## 816                    Jordan   4519.4612
## 817                     Kenya    853.5409
## 818                     Kenya    944.4383
## 819                     Kenya    896.9664
## 820                     Kenya   1056.7365
## 821                     Kenya   1222.3600
## 822                     Kenya   1267.6132
## 823                     Kenya   1348.2258
## 824                     Kenya   1361.9369
## 825                     Kenya   1341.9217
## 826                     Kenya   1360.4850
## 827                     Kenya   1287.5147
## 828                     Kenya   1463.2493
## 829           Korea Dem. Rep.   1088.2778
## 830           Korea Dem. Rep.   1571.1347
## 831           Korea Dem. Rep.   1621.6936
## 832           Korea Dem. Rep.   2143.5406
## 833           Korea Dem. Rep.   3701.6215
## 834           Korea Dem. Rep.   4106.3012
## 835           Korea Dem. Rep.   4106.5253
## 836           Korea Dem. Rep.   4106.4923
## 837           Korea Dem. Rep.   3726.0635
## 838           Korea Dem. Rep.   1690.7568
## 839           Korea Dem. Rep.   1646.7582
## 840           Korea Dem. Rep.   1593.0655
## 841                Korea Rep.   1030.5922
## 842                Korea Rep.   1487.5935
## 843                Korea Rep.   1536.3444
## 844                Korea Rep.   2029.2281
## 845                Korea Rep.   3030.8767
## 846                Korea Rep.   4657.2210
## 847                Korea Rep.   5622.9425
## 848                Korea Rep.   8533.0888
## 849                Korea Rep.  12104.2787
## 850                Korea Rep.  15993.5280
## 851                Korea Rep.  19233.9882
## 852                Korea Rep.  23348.1397
## 853                    Kuwait 108382.3529
## 854                    Kuwait 113523.1329
## 855                    Kuwait  95458.1118
## 856                    Kuwait  80894.8833
## 857                    Kuwait 109347.8670
## 858                    Kuwait  59265.4771
## 859                    Kuwait  31354.0357
## 860                    Kuwait  28118.4300
## 861                    Kuwait  34932.9196
## 862                    Kuwait  40300.6200
## 863                    Kuwait  35110.1057
## 864                    Kuwait  47306.9898
## 865                   Lebanon   4834.8041
## 866                   Lebanon   6089.7869
## 867                   Lebanon   5714.5606
## 868                   Lebanon   6006.9830
## 869                   Lebanon   7486.3843
## 870                   Lebanon   8659.6968
## 871                   Lebanon   7640.5195
## 872                   Lebanon   5377.0913
## 873                   Lebanon   6890.8069
## 874                   Lebanon   8754.9639
## 875                   Lebanon   9313.9388
## 876                   Lebanon  10461.0587
## 877                   Lesotho    298.8462
## 878                   Lesotho    335.9971
## 879                   Lesotho    411.8006
## 880                   Lesotho    498.6390
## 881                   Lesotho    496.5816
## 882                   Lesotho    745.3695
## 883                   Lesotho    797.2631
## 884                   Lesotho    773.9932
## 885                   Lesotho    977.4863
## 886                   Lesotho   1186.1480
## 887                   Lesotho   1275.1846
## 888                   Lesotho   1569.3314
## 889                   Liberia    575.5730
## 890                   Liberia    620.9700
## 891                   Liberia    634.1952
## 892                   Liberia    713.6036
## 893                   Liberia    803.0055
## 894                   Liberia    640.3224
## 895                   Liberia    572.1996
## 896                   Liberia    506.1139
## 897                   Liberia    636.6229
## 898                   Liberia    609.1740
## 899                   Liberia    531.4824
## 900                   Liberia    414.5073
## 901                     Libya   2387.5481
## 902                     Libya   3448.2844
## 903                     Libya   6757.0308
## 904                     Libya  18772.7517
## 905                     Libya  21011.4972
## 906                     Libya  21951.2118
## 907                     Libya  17364.2754
## 908                     Libya  11770.5898
## 909                     Libya   9640.1385
## 910                     Libya   9467.4461
## 911                     Libya   9534.6775
## 912                     Libya  12057.4993
## 913                Madagascar   1443.0117
## 914                Madagascar   1589.2027
## 915                Madagascar   1643.3871
## 916                Madagascar   1634.0473
## 917                Madagascar   1748.5630
## 918                Madagascar   1544.2286
## 919                Madagascar   1302.8787
## 920                Madagascar   1155.4419
## 921                Madagascar   1040.6762
## 922                Madagascar    986.2959
## 923                Madagascar    894.6371
## 924                Madagascar   1044.7701
## 925                    Malawi    369.1651
## 926                    Malawi    416.3698
## 927                    Malawi    427.9011
## 928                    Malawi    495.5148
## 929                    Malawi    584.6220
## 930                    Malawi    663.2237
## 931                    Malawi    632.8039
## 932                    Malawi    635.5174
## 933                    Malawi    563.2000
## 934                    Malawi    692.2758
## 935                    Malawi    665.4231
## 936                    Malawi    759.3499
## 937                  Malaysia   1831.1329
## 938                  Malaysia   1810.0670
## 939                  Malaysia   2036.8849
## 940                  Malaysia   2277.7424
## 941                  Malaysia   2849.0948
## 942                  Malaysia   3827.9216
## 943                  Malaysia   4920.3560
## 944                  Malaysia   5249.8027
## 945                  Malaysia   7277.9128
## 946                  Malaysia  10132.9096
## 947                  Malaysia  10206.9779
## 948                  Malaysia  12451.6558
## 949                      Mali    452.3370
## 950                      Mali    490.3822
## 951                      Mali    496.1743
## 952                      Mali    545.0099
## 953                      Mali    581.3689
## 954                      Mali    686.3953
## 955                      Mali    618.0141
## 956                      Mali    684.1716
## 957                      Mali    739.0144
## 958                      Mali    790.2580
## 959                      Mali    951.4098
## 960                      Mali   1042.5816
## 961                Mauritania    743.1159
## 962                Mauritania    846.1203
## 963                Mauritania   1055.8960
## 964                Mauritania   1421.1452
## 965                Mauritania   1586.8518
## 966                Mauritania   1497.4922
## 967                Mauritania   1481.1502
## 968                Mauritania   1421.6036
## 969                Mauritania   1361.3698
## 970                Mauritania   1483.1361
## 971                Mauritania   1579.0195
## 972                Mauritania   1803.1515
## 973                 Mauritius   1967.9557
## 974                 Mauritius   2034.0380
## 975                 Mauritius   2529.0675
## 976                 Mauritius   2475.3876
## 977                 Mauritius   2575.4842
## 978                 Mauritius   3710.9830
## 979                 Mauritius   3688.0377
## 980                 Mauritius   4783.5869
## 981                 Mauritius   6058.2538
## 982                 Mauritius   7425.7053
## 983                 Mauritius   9021.8159
## 984                 Mauritius  10956.9911
## 985                    Mexico   3478.1255
## 986                    Mexico   4131.5466
## 987                    Mexico   4581.6094
## 988                    Mexico   5754.7339
## 989                    Mexico   6809.4067
## 990                    Mexico   7674.9291
## 991                    Mexico   9611.1475
## 992                    Mexico   8688.1560
## 993                    Mexico   9472.3843
## 994                    Mexico   9767.2975
## 995                    Mexico  10742.4405
## 996                    Mexico  11977.5750
## 997                  Mongolia    786.5669
## 998                  Mongolia    912.6626
## 999                  Mongolia   1056.3540
## 1000                 Mongolia   1226.0411
## 1001                 Mongolia   1421.7420
## 1002                 Mongolia   1647.5117
## 1003                 Mongolia   2000.6031
## 1004                 Mongolia   2338.0083
## 1005                 Mongolia   1785.4020
## 1006                 Mongolia   1902.2521
## 1007                 Mongolia   2140.7393
## 1008                 Mongolia   3095.7723
## 1009               Montenegro   2647.5856
## 1010               Montenegro   3682.2599
## 1011               Montenegro   4649.5938
## 1012               Montenegro   5907.8509
## 1013               Montenegro   7778.4140
## 1014               Montenegro   9595.9299
## 1015               Montenegro  11222.5876
## 1016               Montenegro  11732.5102
## 1017               Montenegro   7003.3390
## 1018               Montenegro   6465.6133
## 1019               Montenegro   6557.1943
## 1020               Montenegro   9253.8961
## 1021                  Morocco   1688.2036
## 1022                  Morocco   1642.0023
## 1023                  Morocco   1566.3535
## 1024                  Morocco   1711.0448
## 1025                  Morocco   1930.1950
## 1026                  Morocco   2370.6200
## 1027                  Morocco   2702.6204
## 1028                  Morocco   2755.0470
## 1029                  Morocco   2948.0473
## 1030                  Morocco   2982.1019
## 1031                  Morocco   3258.4956
## 1032                  Morocco   3820.1752
## 1033               Mozambique    468.5260
## 1034               Mozambique    495.5868
## 1035               Mozambique    556.6864
## 1036               Mozambique    566.6692
## 1037               Mozambique    724.9178
## 1038               Mozambique    502.3197
## 1039               Mozambique    462.2114
## 1040               Mozambique    389.8762
## 1041               Mozambique    410.8968
## 1042               Mozambique    472.3461
## 1043               Mozambique    633.6179
## 1044               Mozambique    823.6856
## 1045                  Myanmar    331.0000
## 1046                  Myanmar    350.0000
## 1047                  Myanmar    388.0000
## 1048                  Myanmar    349.0000
## 1049                  Myanmar    357.0000
## 1050                  Myanmar    371.0000
## 1051                  Myanmar    424.0000
## 1052                  Myanmar    385.0000
## 1053                  Myanmar    347.0000
## 1054                  Myanmar    415.0000
## 1055                  Myanmar    611.0000
## 1056                  Myanmar    944.0000
## 1057                  Namibia   2423.7804
## 1058                  Namibia   2621.4481
## 1059                  Namibia   3173.2156
## 1060                  Namibia   3793.6948
## 1061                  Namibia   3746.0809
## 1062                  Namibia   3876.4860
## 1063                  Namibia   4191.1005
## 1064                  Namibia   3693.7313
## 1065                  Namibia   3804.5380
## 1066                  Namibia   3899.5243
## 1067                  Namibia   4072.3248
## 1068                  Namibia   4811.0604
## 1069                    Nepal    545.8657
## 1070                    Nepal    597.9364
## 1071                    Nepal    652.3969
## 1072                    Nepal    676.4422
## 1073                    Nepal    674.7881
## 1074                    Nepal    694.1124
## 1075                    Nepal    718.3731
## 1076                    Nepal    775.6325
## 1077                    Nepal    897.7404
## 1078                    Nepal   1010.8921
## 1079                    Nepal   1057.2063
## 1080                    Nepal   1091.3598
## 1081              Netherlands   8941.5719
## 1082              Netherlands  11276.1934
## 1083              Netherlands  12790.8496
## 1084              Netherlands  15363.2514
## 1085              Netherlands  18794.7457
## 1086              Netherlands  21209.0592
## 1087              Netherlands  21399.4605
## 1088              Netherlands  23651.3236
## 1089              Netherlands  26790.9496
## 1090              Netherlands  30246.1306
## 1091              Netherlands  33724.7578
## 1092              Netherlands  36797.9333
## 1093              New Zealand  10556.5757
## 1094              New Zealand  12247.3953
## 1095              New Zealand  13175.6780
## 1096              New Zealand  14463.9189
## 1097              New Zealand  16046.0373
## 1098              New Zealand  16233.7177
## 1099              New Zealand  17632.4104
## 1100              New Zealand  19007.1913
## 1101              New Zealand  18363.3249
## 1102              New Zealand  21050.4138
## 1103              New Zealand  23189.8014
## 1104              New Zealand  25185.0091
## 1105                Nicaragua   3112.3639
## 1106                Nicaragua   3457.4159
## 1107                Nicaragua   3634.3644
## 1108                Nicaragua   4643.3935
## 1109                Nicaragua   4688.5933
## 1110                Nicaragua   5486.3711
## 1111                Nicaragua   3470.3382
## 1112                Nicaragua   2955.9844
## 1113                Nicaragua   2170.1517
## 1114                Nicaragua   2253.0230
## 1115                Nicaragua   2474.5488
## 1116                Nicaragua   2749.3210
## 1117                    Niger    761.8794
## 1118                    Niger    835.5234
## 1119                    Niger    997.7661
## 1120                    Niger   1054.3849
## 1121                    Niger    954.2092
## 1122                    Niger    808.8971
## 1123                    Niger    909.7221
## 1124                    Niger    668.3000
## 1125                    Niger    581.1827
## 1126                    Niger    580.3052
## 1127                    Niger    601.0745
## 1128                    Niger    619.6769
## 1129                  Nigeria   1077.2819
## 1130                  Nigeria   1100.5926
## 1131                  Nigeria   1150.9275
## 1132                  Nigeria   1014.5141
## 1133                  Nigeria   1698.3888
## 1134                  Nigeria   1981.9518
## 1135                  Nigeria   1576.9738
## 1136                  Nigeria   1385.0296
## 1137                  Nigeria   1619.8482
## 1138                  Nigeria   1624.9413
## 1139                  Nigeria   1615.2864
## 1140                  Nigeria   2013.9773
## 1141                   Norway  10095.4217
## 1142                   Norway  11653.9730
## 1143                   Norway  13450.4015
## 1144                   Norway  16361.8765
## 1145                   Norway  18965.0555
## 1146                   Norway  23311.3494
## 1147                   Norway  26298.6353
## 1148                   Norway  31540.9748
## 1149                   Norway  33965.6611
## 1150                   Norway  41283.1643
## 1151                   Norway  44683.9753
## 1152                   Norway  49357.1902
## 1153                     Oman   1828.2303
## 1154                     Oman   2242.7466
## 1155                     Oman   2924.6381
## 1156                     Oman   4720.9427
## 1157                     Oman  10618.0385
## 1158                     Oman  11848.3439
## 1159                     Oman  12954.7910
## 1160                     Oman  18115.2231
## 1161                     Oman  18616.7069
## 1162                     Oman  19702.0558
## 1163                     Oman  19774.8369
## 1164                     Oman  22316.1929
## 1165                 Pakistan    684.5971
## 1166                 Pakistan    747.0835
## 1167                 Pakistan    803.3427
## 1168                 Pakistan    942.4083
## 1169                 Pakistan   1049.9390
## 1170                 Pakistan   1175.9212
## 1171                 Pakistan   1443.4298
## 1172                 Pakistan   1704.6866
## 1173                 Pakistan   1971.8295
## 1174                 Pakistan   2049.3505
## 1175                 Pakistan   2092.7124
## 1176                 Pakistan   2605.9476
## 1177                   Panama   2480.3803
## 1178                   Panama   2961.8009
## 1179                   Panama   3536.5403
## 1180                   Panama   4421.0091
## 1181                   Panama   5364.2497
## 1182                   Panama   5351.9121
## 1183                   Panama   7009.6016
## 1184                   Panama   7034.7792
## 1185                   Panama   6618.7431
## 1186                   Panama   7113.6923
## 1187                   Panama   7356.0319
## 1188                   Panama   9809.1856
## 1189                 Paraguay   1952.3087
## 1190                 Paraguay   2046.1547
## 1191                 Paraguay   2148.0271
## 1192                 Paraguay   2299.3763
## 1193                 Paraguay   2523.3380
## 1194                 Paraguay   3248.3733
## 1195                 Paraguay   4258.5036
## 1196                 Paraguay   3998.8757
## 1197                 Paraguay   4196.4111
## 1198                 Paraguay   4247.4003
## 1199                 Paraguay   3783.6742
## 1200                 Paraguay   4172.8385
## 1201                     Peru   3758.5234
## 1202                     Peru   4245.2567
## 1203                     Peru   4957.0380
## 1204                     Peru   5788.0933
## 1205                     Peru   5937.8273
## 1206                     Peru   6281.2909
## 1207                     Peru   6434.5018
## 1208                     Peru   6360.9434
## 1209                     Peru   4446.3809
## 1210                     Peru   5838.3477
## 1211                     Peru   5909.0201
## 1212                     Peru   7408.9056
## 1213              Philippines   1272.8810
## 1214              Philippines   1547.9448
## 1215              Philippines   1649.5522
## 1216              Philippines   1814.1274
## 1217              Philippines   1989.3741
## 1218              Philippines   2373.2043
## 1219              Philippines   2603.2738
## 1220              Philippines   2189.6350
## 1221              Philippines   2279.3240
## 1222              Philippines   2536.5349
## 1223              Philippines   2650.9211
## 1224              Philippines   3190.4810
## 1225                   Poland   4029.3297
## 1226                   Poland   4734.2530
## 1227                   Poland   5338.7521
## 1228                   Poland   6557.1528
## 1229                   Poland   8006.5070
## 1230                   Poland   9508.1415
## 1231                   Poland   8451.5310
## 1232                   Poland   9082.3512
## 1233                   Poland   7738.8812
## 1234                   Poland  10159.5837
## 1235                   Poland  12002.2391
## 1236                   Poland  15389.9247
## 1237                 Portugal   3068.3199
## 1238                 Portugal   3774.5717
## 1239                 Portugal   4727.9549
## 1240                 Portugal   6361.5180
## 1241                 Portugal   9022.2474
## 1242                 Portugal  10172.4857
## 1243                 Portugal  11753.8429
## 1244                 Portugal  13039.3088
## 1245                 Portugal  16207.2666
## 1246                 Portugal  17641.0316
## 1247                 Portugal  19970.9079
## 1248                 Portugal  20509.6478
## 1249              Puerto Rico   3081.9598
## 1250              Puerto Rico   3907.1562
## 1251              Puerto Rico   5108.3446
## 1252              Puerto Rico   6929.2777
## 1253              Puerto Rico   9123.0417
## 1254              Puerto Rico   9770.5249
## 1255              Puerto Rico  10330.9891
## 1256              Puerto Rico  12281.3419
## 1257              Puerto Rico  14641.5871
## 1258              Puerto Rico  16999.4333
## 1259              Puerto Rico  18855.6062
## 1260              Puerto Rico  19328.7090
## 1261                  Reunion   2718.8853
## 1262                  Reunion   2769.4518
## 1263                  Reunion   3173.7233
## 1264                  Reunion   4021.1757
## 1265                  Reunion   5047.6586
## 1266                  Reunion   4319.8041
## 1267                  Reunion   5267.2194
## 1268                  Reunion   5303.3775
## 1269                  Reunion   6101.2558
## 1270                  Reunion   6071.9414
## 1271                  Reunion   6316.1652
## 1272                  Reunion   7670.1226
## 1273                  Romania   3144.6132
## 1274                  Romania   3943.3702
## 1275                  Romania   4734.9976
## 1276                  Romania   6470.8665
## 1277                  Romania   8011.4144
## 1278                  Romania   9356.3972
## 1279                  Romania   9605.3141
## 1280                  Romania   9696.2733
## 1281                  Romania   6598.4099
## 1282                  Romania   7346.5476
## 1283                  Romania   7885.3601
## 1284                  Romania  10808.4756
## 1285                   Rwanda    493.3239
## 1286                   Rwanda    540.2894
## 1287                   Rwanda    597.4731
## 1288                   Rwanda    510.9637
## 1289                   Rwanda    590.5807
## 1290                   Rwanda    670.0806
## 1291                   Rwanda    881.5706
## 1292                   Rwanda    847.9912
## 1293                   Rwanda    737.0686
## 1294                   Rwanda    589.9445
## 1295                   Rwanda    785.6538
## 1296                   Rwanda    863.0885
## 1297    Sao Tome and Principe    879.5836
## 1298    Sao Tome and Principe    860.7369
## 1299    Sao Tome and Principe   1071.5511
## 1300    Sao Tome and Principe   1384.8406
## 1301    Sao Tome and Principe   1532.9853
## 1302    Sao Tome and Principe   1737.5617
## 1303    Sao Tome and Principe   1890.2181
## 1304    Sao Tome and Principe   1516.5255
## 1305    Sao Tome and Principe   1428.7778
## 1306    Sao Tome and Principe   1339.0760
## 1307    Sao Tome and Principe   1353.0924
## 1308    Sao Tome and Principe   1598.4351
## 1309             Saudi Arabia   6459.5548
## 1310             Saudi Arabia   8157.5912
## 1311             Saudi Arabia  11626.4197
## 1312             Saudi Arabia  16903.0489
## 1313             Saudi Arabia  24837.4287
## 1314             Saudi Arabia  34167.7626
## 1315             Saudi Arabia  33693.1753
## 1316             Saudi Arabia  21198.2614
## 1317             Saudi Arabia  24841.6178
## 1318             Saudi Arabia  20586.6902
## 1319             Saudi Arabia  19014.5412
## 1320             Saudi Arabia  21654.8319
## 1321                  Senegal   1450.3570
## 1322                  Senegal   1567.6530
## 1323                  Senegal   1654.9887
## 1324                  Senegal   1612.4046
## 1325                  Senegal   1597.7121
## 1326                  Senegal   1561.7691
## 1327                  Senegal   1518.4800
## 1328                  Senegal   1441.7207
## 1329                  Senegal   1367.8994
## 1330                  Senegal   1392.3683
## 1331                  Senegal   1519.6353
## 1332                  Senegal   1712.4721
## 1333                   Serbia   3581.4594
## 1334                   Serbia   4981.0909
## 1335                   Serbia   6289.6292
## 1336                   Serbia   7991.7071
## 1337                   Serbia  10522.0675
## 1338                   Serbia  12980.6696
## 1339                   Serbia  15181.0927
## 1340                   Serbia  15870.8785
## 1341                   Serbia   9325.0682
## 1342                   Serbia   7914.3203
## 1343                   Serbia   7236.0753
## 1344                   Serbia   9786.5347
## 1345             Sierra Leone    879.7877
## 1346             Sierra Leone   1004.4844
## 1347             Sierra Leone   1116.6399
## 1348             Sierra Leone   1206.0435
## 1349             Sierra Leone   1353.7598
## 1350             Sierra Leone   1348.2852
## 1351             Sierra Leone   1465.0108
## 1352             Sierra Leone   1294.4478
## 1353             Sierra Leone   1068.6963
## 1354             Sierra Leone    574.6482
## 1355             Sierra Leone    699.4897
## 1356             Sierra Leone    862.5408
## 1357                Singapore   2315.1382
## 1358                Singapore   2843.1044
## 1359                Singapore   3674.7356
## 1360                Singapore   4977.4185
## 1361                Singapore   8597.7562
## 1362                Singapore  11210.0895
## 1363                Singapore  15169.1611
## 1364                Singapore  18861.5308
## 1365                Singapore  24769.8912
## 1366                Singapore  33519.4766
## 1367                Singapore  36023.1054
## 1368                Singapore  47143.1796
## 1369          Slovak Republic   5074.6591
## 1370          Slovak Republic   6093.2630
## 1371          Slovak Republic   7481.1076
## 1372          Slovak Republic   8412.9024
## 1373          Slovak Republic   9674.1676
## 1374          Slovak Republic  10922.6640
## 1375          Slovak Republic  11348.5459
## 1376          Slovak Republic  12037.2676
## 1377          Slovak Republic   9498.4677
## 1378          Slovak Republic  12126.2306
## 1379          Slovak Republic  13638.7784
## 1380          Slovak Republic  18678.3144
## 1381                 Slovenia   4215.0417
## 1382                 Slovenia   5862.2766
## 1383                 Slovenia   7402.3034
## 1384                 Slovenia   9405.4894
## 1385                 Slovenia  12383.4862
## 1386                 Slovenia  15277.0302
## 1387                 Slovenia  17866.7218
## 1388                 Slovenia  18678.5349
## 1389                 Slovenia  14214.7168
## 1390                 Slovenia  17161.1073
## 1391                 Slovenia  20660.0194
## 1392                 Slovenia  25768.2576
## 1393                  Somalia   1135.7498
## 1394                  Somalia   1258.1474
## 1395                  Somalia   1369.4883
## 1396                  Somalia   1284.7332
## 1397                  Somalia   1254.5761
## 1398                  Somalia   1450.9925
## 1399                  Somalia   1176.8070
## 1400                  Somalia   1093.2450
## 1401                  Somalia    926.9603
## 1402                  Somalia    930.5964
## 1403                  Somalia    882.0818
## 1404                  Somalia    926.1411
## 1405             South Africa   4725.2955
## 1406             South Africa   5487.1042
## 1407             South Africa   5768.7297
## 1408             South Africa   7114.4780
## 1409             South Africa   7765.9626
## 1410             South Africa   8028.6514
## 1411             South Africa   8568.2662
## 1412             South Africa   7825.8234
## 1413             South Africa   7225.0693
## 1414             South Africa   7479.1882
## 1415             South Africa   7710.9464
## 1416             South Africa   9269.6578
## 1417                    Spain   3834.0347
## 1418                    Spain   4564.8024
## 1419                    Spain   5693.8439
## 1420                    Spain   7993.5123
## 1421                    Spain  10638.7513
## 1422                    Spain  13236.9212
## 1423                    Spain  13926.1700
## 1424                    Spain  15764.9831
## 1425                    Spain  18603.0645
## 1426                    Spain  20445.2990
## 1427                    Spain  24835.4717
## 1428                    Spain  28821.0637
## 1429                Sri Lanka   1083.5320
## 1430                Sri Lanka   1072.5466
## 1431                Sri Lanka   1074.4720
## 1432                Sri Lanka   1135.5143
## 1433                Sri Lanka   1213.3955
## 1434                Sri Lanka   1348.7757
## 1435                Sri Lanka   1648.0798
## 1436                Sri Lanka   1876.7668
## 1437                Sri Lanka   2153.7392
## 1438                Sri Lanka   2664.4773
## 1439                Sri Lanka   3015.3788
## 1440                Sri Lanka   3970.0954
## 1441                    Sudan   1615.9911
## 1442                    Sudan   1770.3371
## 1443                    Sudan   1959.5938
## 1444                    Sudan   1687.9976
## 1445                    Sudan   1659.6528
## 1446                    Sudan   2202.9884
## 1447                    Sudan   1895.5441
## 1448                    Sudan   1507.8192
## 1449                    Sudan   1492.1970
## 1450                    Sudan   1632.2108
## 1451                    Sudan   1993.3983
## 1452                    Sudan   2602.3950
## 1453                Swaziland   1148.3766
## 1454                Swaziland   1244.7084
## 1455                Swaziland   1856.1821
## 1456                Swaziland   2613.1017
## 1457                Swaziland   3364.8366
## 1458                Swaziland   3781.4106
## 1459                Swaziland   3895.3840
## 1460                Swaziland   3984.8398
## 1461                Swaziland   3553.0224
## 1462                Swaziland   3876.7685
## 1463                Swaziland   4128.1169
## 1464                Swaziland   4513.4806
## 1465                   Sweden   8527.8447
## 1466                   Sweden   9911.8782
## 1467                   Sweden  12329.4419
## 1468                   Sweden  15258.2970
## 1469                   Sweden  17832.0246
## 1470                   Sweden  18855.7252
## 1471                   Sweden  20667.3812
## 1472                   Sweden  23586.9293
## 1473                   Sweden  23880.0168
## 1474                   Sweden  25266.5950
## 1475                   Sweden  29341.6309
## 1476                   Sweden  33859.7484
## 1477              Switzerland  14734.2327
## 1478              Switzerland  17909.4897
## 1479              Switzerland  20431.0927
## 1480              Switzerland  22966.1443
## 1481              Switzerland  27195.1130
## 1482              Switzerland  26982.2905
## 1483              Switzerland  28397.7151
## 1484              Switzerland  30281.7046
## 1485              Switzerland  31871.5303
## 1486              Switzerland  32135.3230
## 1487              Switzerland  34480.9577
## 1488              Switzerland  37506.4191
## 1489                    Syria   1643.4854
## 1490                    Syria   2117.2349
## 1491                    Syria   2193.0371
## 1492                    Syria   1881.9236
## 1493                    Syria   2571.4230
## 1494                    Syria   3195.4846
## 1495                    Syria   3761.8377
## 1496                    Syria   3116.7743
## 1497                    Syria   3340.5428
## 1498                    Syria   4014.2390
## 1499                    Syria   4090.9253
## 1500                    Syria   4184.5481
## 1501                   Taiwan   1206.9479
## 1502                   Taiwan   1507.8613
## 1503                   Taiwan   1822.8790
## 1504                   Taiwan   2643.8587
## 1505                   Taiwan   4062.5239
## 1506                   Taiwan   5596.5198
## 1507                   Taiwan   7426.3548
## 1508                   Taiwan  11054.5618
## 1509                   Taiwan  15215.6579
## 1510                   Taiwan  20206.8210
## 1511                   Taiwan  23235.4233
## 1512                   Taiwan  28718.2768
## 1513                 Tanzania    716.6501
## 1514                 Tanzania    698.5356
## 1515                 Tanzania    722.0038
## 1516                 Tanzania    848.2187
## 1517                 Tanzania    915.9851
## 1518                 Tanzania    962.4923
## 1519                 Tanzania    874.2426
## 1520                 Tanzania    831.8221
## 1521                 Tanzania    825.6825
## 1522                 Tanzania    789.1862
## 1523                 Tanzania    899.0742
## 1524                 Tanzania   1107.4822
## 1525                 Thailand    757.7974
## 1526                 Thailand    793.5774
## 1527                 Thailand   1002.1992
## 1528                 Thailand   1295.4607
## 1529                 Thailand   1524.3589
## 1530                 Thailand   1961.2246
## 1531                 Thailand   2393.2198
## 1532                 Thailand   2982.6538
## 1533                 Thailand   4616.8965
## 1534                 Thailand   5852.6255
## 1535                 Thailand   5913.1875
## 1536                 Thailand   7458.3963
## 1537                     Togo    859.8087
## 1538                     Togo    925.9083
## 1539                     Togo   1067.5348
## 1540                     Togo   1477.5968
## 1541                     Togo   1649.6602
## 1542                     Togo   1532.7770
## 1543                     Togo   1344.5780
## 1544                     Togo   1202.2014
## 1545                     Togo   1034.2989
## 1546                     Togo    982.2869
## 1547                     Togo    886.2206
## 1548                     Togo    882.9699
## 1549      Trinidad and Tobago   3023.2719
## 1550      Trinidad and Tobago   4100.3934
## 1551      Trinidad and Tobago   4997.5240
## 1552      Trinidad and Tobago   5621.3685
## 1553      Trinidad and Tobago   6619.5514
## 1554      Trinidad and Tobago   7899.5542
## 1555      Trinidad and Tobago   9119.5286
## 1556      Trinidad and Tobago   7388.5978
## 1557      Trinidad and Tobago   7370.9909
## 1558      Trinidad and Tobago   8792.5731
## 1559      Trinidad and Tobago  11460.6002
## 1560      Trinidad and Tobago  18008.5092
## 1561                  Tunisia   1468.4756
## 1562                  Tunisia   1395.2325
## 1563                  Tunisia   1660.3032
## 1564                  Tunisia   1932.3602
## 1565                  Tunisia   2753.2860
## 1566                  Tunisia   3120.8768
## 1567                  Tunisia   3560.2332
## 1568                  Tunisia   3810.4193
## 1569                  Tunisia   4332.7202
## 1570                  Tunisia   4876.7986
## 1571                  Tunisia   5722.8957
## 1572                  Tunisia   7092.9230
## 1573                   Turkey   1969.1010
## 1574                   Turkey   2218.7543
## 1575                   Turkey   2322.8699
## 1576                   Turkey   2826.3564
## 1577                   Turkey   3450.6964
## 1578                   Turkey   4269.1223
## 1579                   Turkey   4241.3563
## 1580                   Turkey   5089.0437
## 1581                   Turkey   5678.3483
## 1582                   Turkey   6601.4299
## 1583                   Turkey   6508.0857
## 1584                   Turkey   8458.2764
## 1585                   Uganda    734.7535
## 1586                   Uganda    774.3711
## 1587                   Uganda    767.2717
## 1588                   Uganda    908.9185
## 1589                   Uganda    950.7359
## 1590                   Uganda    843.7331
## 1591                   Uganda    682.2662
## 1592                   Uganda    617.7244
## 1593                   Uganda    644.1708
## 1594                   Uganda    816.5591
## 1595                   Uganda    927.7210
## 1596                   Uganda   1056.3801
## 1597           United Kingdom   9979.5085
## 1598           United Kingdom  11283.1779
## 1599           United Kingdom  12477.1771
## 1600           United Kingdom  14142.8509
## 1601           United Kingdom  15895.1164
## 1602           United Kingdom  17428.7485
## 1603           United Kingdom  18232.4245
## 1604           United Kingdom  21664.7877
## 1605           United Kingdom  22705.0925
## 1606           United Kingdom  26074.5314
## 1607           United Kingdom  29478.9992
## 1608           United Kingdom  33203.2613
## 1609            United States  13990.4821
## 1610            United States  14847.1271
## 1611            United States  16173.1459
## 1612            United States  19530.3656
## 1613            United States  21806.0359
## 1614            United States  24072.6321
## 1615            United States  25009.5591
## 1616            United States  29884.3504
## 1617            United States  32003.9322
## 1618            United States  35767.4330
## 1619            United States  39097.0995
## 1620            United States  42951.6531
## 1621                  Uruguay   5716.7667
## 1622                  Uruguay   6150.7730
## 1623                  Uruguay   5603.3577
## 1624                  Uruguay   5444.6196
## 1625                  Uruguay   5703.4089
## 1626                  Uruguay   6504.3397
## 1627                  Uruguay   6920.2231
## 1628                  Uruguay   7452.3990
## 1629                  Uruguay   8137.0048
## 1630                  Uruguay   9230.2407
## 1631                  Uruguay   7727.0020
## 1632                  Uruguay  10611.4630
## 1633                Venezuela   7689.7998
## 1634                Venezuela   9802.4665
## 1635                Venezuela   8422.9742
## 1636                Venezuela   9541.4742
## 1637                Venezuela  10505.2597
## 1638                Venezuela  13143.9510
## 1639                Venezuela  11152.4101
## 1640                Venezuela   9883.5846
## 1641                Venezuela  10733.9263
## 1642                Venezuela  10165.4952
## 1643                Venezuela   8605.0478
## 1644                Venezuela  11415.8057
## 1645                  Vietnam    605.0665
## 1646                  Vietnam    676.2854
## 1647                  Vietnam    772.0492
## 1648                  Vietnam    637.1233
## 1649                  Vietnam    699.5016
## 1650                  Vietnam    713.5371
## 1651                  Vietnam    707.2358
## 1652                  Vietnam    820.7994
## 1653                  Vietnam    989.0231
## 1654                  Vietnam   1385.8968
## 1655                  Vietnam   1764.4567
## 1656                  Vietnam   2441.5764
## 1657       West Bank and Gaza   1515.5923
## 1658       West Bank and Gaza   1827.0677
## 1659       West Bank and Gaza   2198.9563
## 1660       West Bank and Gaza   2649.7150
## 1661       West Bank and Gaza   3133.4093
## 1662       West Bank and Gaza   3682.8315
## 1663       West Bank and Gaza   4336.0321
## 1664       West Bank and Gaza   5107.1974
## 1665       West Bank and Gaza   6017.6548
## 1666       West Bank and Gaza   7110.6676
## 1667       West Bank and Gaza   4515.4876
## 1668       West Bank and Gaza   3025.3498
## 1669               Yemen Rep.    781.7176
## 1670               Yemen Rep.    804.8305
## 1671               Yemen Rep.    825.6232
## 1672               Yemen Rep.    862.4421
## 1673               Yemen Rep.   1265.0470
## 1674               Yemen Rep.   1829.7652
## 1675               Yemen Rep.   1977.5570
## 1676               Yemen Rep.   1971.7415
## 1677               Yemen Rep.   1879.4967
## 1678               Yemen Rep.   2117.4845
## 1679               Yemen Rep.   2234.8208
## 1680               Yemen Rep.   2280.7699
## 1681                   Zambia   1147.3888
## 1682                   Zambia   1311.9568
## 1683                   Zambia   1452.7258
## 1684                   Zambia   1777.0773
## 1685                   Zambia   1773.4983
## 1686                   Zambia   1588.6883
## 1687                   Zambia   1408.6786
## 1688                   Zambia   1213.3151
## 1689                   Zambia   1210.8846
## 1690                   Zambia   1071.3538
## 1691                   Zambia   1071.6139
## 1692                   Zambia   1271.2116
## 1693                 Zimbabwe    406.8841
## 1694                 Zimbabwe    518.7643
## 1695                 Zimbabwe    527.2722
## 1696                 Zimbabwe    569.7951
## 1697                 Zimbabwe    799.3622
## 1698                 Zimbabwe    685.5877
## 1699                 Zimbabwe    788.8550
## 1700                 Zimbabwe    706.1573
## 1701                 Zimbabwe    693.4208
## 1702                 Zimbabwe    792.4500
## 1703                 Zimbabwe    672.0386
## 1704                 Zimbabwe    469.7093

You can also specify columns to remove using negative selection, select(-varname)

gapminder %>% 
  select(-continent) 
##                       country year        pop  lifeExp   gdpPercap
## 1                 Afghanistan 1952    8425333 28.80100    779.4453
## 2                 Afghanistan 1957    9240934 30.33200    820.8530
## 3                 Afghanistan 1962   10267083 31.99700    853.1007
## 4                 Afghanistan 1967   11537966 34.02000    836.1971
## 5                 Afghanistan 1972   13079460 36.08800    739.9811
## 6                 Afghanistan 1977   14880372 38.43800    786.1134
## 7                 Afghanistan 1982   12881816 39.85400    978.0114
## 8                 Afghanistan 1987   13867957 40.82200    852.3959
## 9                 Afghanistan 1992   16317921 41.67400    649.3414
## 10                Afghanistan 1997   22227415 41.76300    635.3414
## 11                Afghanistan 2002   25268405 42.12900    726.7341
## 12                Afghanistan 2007   31889923 43.82800    974.5803
## 13                    Albania 1952    1282697 55.23000   1601.0561
## 14                    Albania 1957    1476505 59.28000   1942.2842
## 15                    Albania 1962    1728137 64.82000   2312.8890
## 16                    Albania 1967    1984060 66.22000   2760.1969
## 17                    Albania 1972    2263554 67.69000   3313.4222
## 18                    Albania 1977    2509048 68.93000   3533.0039
## 19                    Albania 1982    2780097 70.42000   3630.8807
## 20                    Albania 1987    3075321 72.00000   3738.9327
## 21                    Albania 1992    3326498 71.58100   2497.4379
## 22                    Albania 1997    3428038 72.95000   3193.0546
## 23                    Albania 2002    3508512 75.65100   4604.2117
## 24                    Albania 2007    3600523 76.42300   5937.0295
## 25                    Algeria 1952    9279525 43.07700   2449.0082
## 26                    Algeria 1957   10270856 45.68500   3013.9760
## 27                    Algeria 1962   11000948 48.30300   2550.8169
## 28                    Algeria 1967   12760499 51.40700   3246.9918
## 29                    Algeria 1972   14760787 54.51800   4182.6638
## 30                    Algeria 1977   17152804 58.01400   4910.4168
## 31                    Algeria 1982   20033753 61.36800   5745.1602
## 32                    Algeria 1987   23254956 65.79900   5681.3585
## 33                    Algeria 1992   26298373 67.74400   5023.2166
## 34                    Algeria 1997   29072015 69.15200   4797.2951
## 35                    Algeria 2002   31287142 70.99400   5288.0404
## 36                    Algeria 2007   33333216 72.30100   6223.3675
## 37                     Angola 1952    4232095 30.01500   3520.6103
## 38                     Angola 1957    4561361 31.99900   3827.9405
## 39                     Angola 1962    4826015 34.00000   4269.2767
## 40                     Angola 1967    5247469 35.98500   5522.7764
## 41                     Angola 1972    5894858 37.92800   5473.2880
## 42                     Angola 1977    6162675 39.48300   3008.6474
## 43                     Angola 1982    7016384 39.94200   2756.9537
## 44                     Angola 1987    7874230 39.90600   2430.2083
## 45                     Angola 1992    8735988 40.64700   2627.8457
## 46                     Angola 1997    9875024 40.96300   2277.1409
## 47                     Angola 2002   10866106 41.00300   2773.2873
## 48                     Angola 2007   12420476 42.73100   4797.2313
## 49                  Argentina 1952   17876956 62.48500   5911.3151
## 50                  Argentina 1957   19610538 64.39900   6856.8562
## 51                  Argentina 1962   21283783 65.14200   7133.1660
## 52                  Argentina 1967   22934225 65.63400   8052.9530
## 53                  Argentina 1972   24779799 67.06500   9443.0385
## 54                  Argentina 1977   26983828 68.48100  10079.0267
## 55                  Argentina 1982   29341374 69.94200   8997.8974
## 56                  Argentina 1987   31620918 70.77400   9139.6714
## 57                  Argentina 1992   33958947 71.86800   9308.4187
## 58                  Argentina 1997   36203463 73.27500  10967.2820
## 59                  Argentina 2002   38331121 74.34000   8797.6407
## 60                  Argentina 2007   40301927 75.32000  12779.3796
## 61                  Australia 1952    8691212 69.12000  10039.5956
## 62                  Australia 1957    9712569 70.33000  10949.6496
## 63                  Australia 1962   10794968 70.93000  12217.2269
## 64                  Australia 1967   11872264 71.10000  14526.1246
## 65                  Australia 1972   13177000 71.93000  16788.6295
## 66                  Australia 1977   14074100 73.49000  18334.1975
## 67                  Australia 1982   15184200 74.74000  19477.0093
## 68                  Australia 1987   16257249 76.32000  21888.8890
## 69                  Australia 1992   17481977 77.56000  23424.7668
## 70                  Australia 1997   18565243 78.83000  26997.9366
## 71                  Australia 2002   19546792 80.37000  30687.7547
## 72                  Australia 2007   20434176 81.23500  34435.3674
## 73                    Austria 1952    6927772 66.80000   6137.0765
## 74                    Austria 1957    6965860 67.48000   8842.5980
## 75                    Austria 1962    7129864 69.54000  10750.7211
## 76                    Austria 1967    7376998 70.14000  12834.6024
## 77                    Austria 1972    7544201 70.63000  16661.6256
## 78                    Austria 1977    7568430 72.17000  19749.4223
## 79                    Austria 1982    7574613 73.18000  21597.0836
## 80                    Austria 1987    7578903 74.94000  23687.8261
## 81                    Austria 1992    7914969 76.04000  27042.0187
## 82                    Austria 1997    8069876 77.51000  29095.9207
## 83                    Austria 2002    8148312 78.98000  32417.6077
## 84                    Austria 2007    8199783 79.82900  36126.4927
## 85                    Bahrain 1952     120447 50.93900   9867.0848
## 86                    Bahrain 1957     138655 53.83200  11635.7995
## 87                    Bahrain 1962     171863 56.92300  12753.2751
## 88                    Bahrain 1967     202182 59.92300  14804.6727
## 89                    Bahrain 1972     230800 63.30000  18268.6584
## 90                    Bahrain 1977     297410 65.59300  19340.1020
## 91                    Bahrain 1982     377967 69.05200  19211.1473
## 92                    Bahrain 1987     454612 70.75000  18524.0241
## 93                    Bahrain 1992     529491 72.60100  19035.5792
## 94                    Bahrain 1997     598561 73.92500  20292.0168
## 95                    Bahrain 2002     656397 74.79500  23403.5593
## 96                    Bahrain 2007     708573 75.63500  29796.0483
## 97                 Bangladesh 1952   46886859 37.48400    684.2442
## 98                 Bangladesh 1957   51365468 39.34800    661.6375
## 99                 Bangladesh 1962   56839289 41.21600    686.3416
## 100                Bangladesh 1967   62821884 43.45300    721.1861
## 101                Bangladesh 1972   70759295 45.25200    630.2336
## 102                Bangladesh 1977   80428306 46.92300    659.8772
## 103                Bangladesh 1982   93074406 50.00900    676.9819
## 104                Bangladesh 1987  103764241 52.81900    751.9794
## 105                Bangladesh 1992  113704579 56.01800    837.8102
## 106                Bangladesh 1997  123315288 59.41200    972.7700
## 107                Bangladesh 2002  135656790 62.01300   1136.3904
## 108                Bangladesh 2007  150448339 64.06200   1391.2538
## 109                   Belgium 1952    8730405 68.00000   8343.1051
## 110                   Belgium 1957    8989111 69.24000   9714.9606
## 111                   Belgium 1962    9218400 70.25000  10991.2068
## 112                   Belgium 1967    9556500 70.94000  13149.0412
## 113                   Belgium 1972    9709100 71.44000  16672.1436
## 114                   Belgium 1977    9821800 72.80000  19117.9745
## 115                   Belgium 1982    9856303 73.93000  20979.8459
## 116                   Belgium 1987    9870200 75.35000  22525.5631
## 117                   Belgium 1992   10045622 76.46000  25575.5707
## 118                   Belgium 1997   10199787 77.53000  27561.1966
## 119                   Belgium 2002   10311970 78.32000  30485.8838
## 120                   Belgium 2007   10392226 79.44100  33692.6051
## 121                     Benin 1952    1738315 38.22300   1062.7522
## 122                     Benin 1957    1925173 40.35800    959.6011
## 123                     Benin 1962    2151895 42.61800    949.4991
## 124                     Benin 1967    2427334 44.88500   1035.8314
## 125                     Benin 1972    2761407 47.01400   1085.7969
## 126                     Benin 1977    3168267 49.19000   1029.1613
## 127                     Benin 1982    3641603 50.90400   1277.8976
## 128                     Benin 1987    4243788 52.33700   1225.8560
## 129                     Benin 1992    4981671 53.91900   1191.2077
## 130                     Benin 1997    6066080 54.77700   1232.9753
## 131                     Benin 2002    7026113 54.40600   1372.8779
## 132                     Benin 2007    8078314 56.72800   1441.2849
## 133                   Bolivia 1952    2883315 40.41400   2677.3263
## 134                   Bolivia 1957    3211738 41.89000   2127.6863
## 135                   Bolivia 1962    3593918 43.42800   2180.9725
## 136                   Bolivia 1967    4040665 45.03200   2586.8861
## 137                   Bolivia 1972    4565872 46.71400   2980.3313
## 138                   Bolivia 1977    5079716 50.02300   3548.0978
## 139                   Bolivia 1982    5642224 53.85900   3156.5105
## 140                   Bolivia 1987    6156369 57.25100   2753.6915
## 141                   Bolivia 1992    6893451 59.95700   2961.6997
## 142                   Bolivia 1997    7693188 62.05000   3326.1432
## 143                   Bolivia 2002    8445134 63.88300   3413.2627
## 144                   Bolivia 2007    9119152 65.55400   3822.1371
## 145    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1952    2791000 53.82000    973.5332
## 146    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1957    3076000 58.45000   1353.9892
## 147    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1962    3349000 61.93000   1709.6837
## 148    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1967    3585000 64.79000   2172.3524
## 149    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1972    3819000 67.45000   2860.1698
## 150    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1977    4086000 69.86000   3528.4813
## 151    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1982    4172693 70.69000   4126.6132
## 152    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1987    4338977 71.14000   4314.1148
## 153    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992    4256013 72.17800   2546.7814
## 154    Bosnia and Herzegovina 1997    3607000 73.24400   4766.3559
## 155    Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002    4165416 74.09000   6018.9752
## 156    Bosnia and Herzegovina 2007    4552198 74.85200   7446.2988
## 157                  Botswana 1952     442308 47.62200    851.2411
## 158                  Botswana 1957     474639 49.61800    918.2325
## 159                  Botswana 1962     512764 51.52000    983.6540
## 160                  Botswana 1967     553541 53.29800   1214.7093
## 161                  Botswana 1972     619351 56.02400   2263.6111
## 162                  Botswana 1977     781472 59.31900   3214.8578
## 163                  Botswana 1982     970347 61.48400   4551.1421
## 164                  Botswana 1987    1151184 63.62200   6205.8839
## 165                  Botswana 1992    1342614 62.74500   7954.1116
## 166                  Botswana 1997    1536536 52.55600   8647.1423
## 167                  Botswana 2002    1630347 46.63400  11003.6051
## 168                  Botswana 2007    1639131 50.72800  12569.8518
## 169                    Brazil 1952   56602560 50.91700   2108.9444
## 170                    Brazil 1957   65551171 53.28500   2487.3660
## 171                    Brazil 1962   76039390 55.66500   3336.5858
## 172                    Brazil 1967   88049823 57.63200   3429.8644
## 173                    Brazil 1972  100840058 59.50400   4985.7115
## 174                    Brazil 1977  114313951 61.48900   6660.1187
## 175                    Brazil 1982  128962939 63.33600   7030.8359
## 176                    Brazil 1987  142938076 65.20500   7807.0958
## 177                    Brazil 1992  155975974 67.05700   6950.2830
## 178                    Brazil 1997  168546719 69.38800   7957.9808
## 179                    Brazil 2002  179914212 71.00600   8131.2128
## 180                    Brazil 2007  190010647 72.39000   9065.8008
## 181                  Bulgaria 1952    7274900 59.60000   2444.2866
## 182                  Bulgaria 1957    7651254 66.61000   3008.6707
## 183                  Bulgaria 1962    8012946 69.51000   4254.3378
## 184                  Bulgaria 1967    8310226 70.42000   5577.0028
## 185                  Bulgaria 1972    8576200 70.90000   6597.4944
## 186                  Bulgaria 1977    8797022 70.81000   7612.2404
## 187                  Bulgaria 1982    8892098 71.08000   8224.1916
## 188                  Bulgaria 1987    8971958 71.34000   8239.8548
## 189                  Bulgaria 1992    8658506 71.19000   6302.6234
## 190                  Bulgaria 1997    8066057 70.32000   5970.3888
## 191                  Bulgaria 2002    7661799 72.14000   7696.7777
## 192                  Bulgaria 2007    7322858 73.00500  10680.7928
## 193              Burkina Faso 1952    4469979 31.97500    543.2552
## 194              Burkina Faso 1957    4713416 34.90600    617.1835
## 195              Burkina Faso 1962    4919632 37.81400    722.5120
## 196              Burkina Faso 1967    5127935 40.69700    794.8266
## 197              Burkina Faso 1972    5433886 43.59100    854.7360
## 198              Burkina Faso 1977    5889574 46.13700    743.3870
## 199              Burkina Faso 1982    6634596 48.12200    807.1986
## 200              Burkina Faso 1987    7586551 49.55700    912.0631
## 201              Burkina Faso 1992    8878303 50.26000    931.7528
## 202              Burkina Faso 1997   10352843 50.32400    946.2950
## 203              Burkina Faso 2002   12251209 50.65000   1037.6452
## 204              Burkina Faso 2007   14326203 52.29500   1217.0330
## 205                   Burundi 1952    2445618 39.03100    339.2965
## 206                   Burundi 1957    2667518 40.53300    379.5646
## 207                   Burundi 1962    2961915 42.04500    355.2032
## 208                   Burundi 1967    3330989 43.54800    412.9775
## 209                   Burundi 1972    3529983 44.05700    464.0995
## 210                   Burundi 1977    3834415 45.91000    556.1033
## 211                   Burundi 1982    4580410 47.47100    559.6032
## 212                   Burundi 1987    5126023 48.21100    621.8188
## 213                   Burundi 1992    5809236 44.73600    631.6999
## 214                   Burundi 1997    6121610 45.32600    463.1151
## 215                   Burundi 2002    7021078 47.36000    446.4035
## 216                   Burundi 2007    8390505 49.58000    430.0707
## 217                  Cambodia 1952    4693836 39.41700    368.4693
## 218                  Cambodia 1957    5322536 41.36600    434.0383
## 219                  Cambodia 1962    6083619 43.41500    496.9136
## 220                  Cambodia 1967    6960067 45.41500    523.4323
## 221                  Cambodia 1972    7450606 40.31700    421.6240
## 222                  Cambodia 1977    6978607 31.22000    524.9722
## 223                  Cambodia 1982    7272485 50.95700    624.4755
## 224                  Cambodia 1987    8371791 53.91400    683.8956
## 225                  Cambodia 1992   10150094 55.80300    682.3032
## 226                  Cambodia 1997   11782962 56.53400    734.2852
## 227                  Cambodia 2002   12926707 56.75200    896.2260
## 228                  Cambodia 2007   14131858 59.72300   1713.7787
## 229                  Cameroon 1952    5009067 38.52300   1172.6677
## 230                  Cameroon 1957    5359923 40.42800   1313.0481
## 231                  Cameroon 1962    5793633 42.64300   1399.6074
## 232                  Cameroon 1967    6335506 44.79900   1508.4531
## 233                  Cameroon 1972    7021028 47.04900   1684.1465
## 234                  Cameroon 1977    7959865 49.35500   1783.4329
## 235                  Cameroon 1982    9250831 52.96100   2367.9833
## 236                  Cameroon 1987   10780667 54.98500   2602.6642
## 237                  Cameroon 1992   12467171 54.31400   1793.1633
## 238                  Cameroon 1997   14195809 52.19900   1694.3375
## 239                  Cameroon 2002   15929988 49.85600   1934.0114
## 240                  Cameroon 2007   17696293 50.43000   2042.0952
## 241                    Canada 1952   14785584 68.75000  11367.1611
## 242                    Canada 1957   17010154 69.96000  12489.9501
## 243                    Canada 1962   18985849 71.30000  13462.4855
## 244                    Canada 1967   20819767 72.13000  16076.5880
## 245                    Canada 1972   22284500 72.88000  18970.5709
## 246                    Canada 1977   23796400 74.21000  22090.8831
## 247                    Canada 1982   25201900 75.76000  22898.7921
## 248                    Canada 1987   26549700 76.86000  26626.5150
## 249                    Canada 1992   28523502 77.95000  26342.8843
## 250                    Canada 1997   30305843 78.61000  28954.9259
## 251                    Canada 2002   31902268 79.77000  33328.9651
## 252                    Canada 2007   33390141 80.65300  36319.2350
## 253  Central African Republic 1952    1291695 35.46300   1071.3107
## 254  Central African Republic 1957    1392284 37.46400   1190.8443
## 255  Central African Republic 1962    1523478 39.47500   1193.0688
## 256  Central African Republic 1967    1733638 41.47800   1136.0566
## 257  Central African Republic 1972    1927260 43.45700   1070.0133
## 258  Central African Republic 1977    2167533 46.77500   1109.3743
## 259  Central African Republic 1982    2476971 48.29500    956.7530
## 260  Central African Republic 1987    2840009 50.48500    844.8764
## 261  Central African Republic 1992    3265124 49.39600    747.9055
## 262  Central African Republic 1997    3696513 46.06600    740.5063
## 263  Central African Republic 2002    4048013 43.30800    738.6906
## 264  Central African Republic 2007    4369038 44.74100    706.0165
## 265                      Chad 1952    2682462 38.09200   1178.6659
## 266                      Chad 1957    2894855 39.88100   1308.4956
## 267                      Chad 1962    3150417 41.71600   1389.8176
## 268                      Chad 1967    3495967 43.60100   1196.8106
## 269                      Chad 1972    3899068 45.56900   1104.1040
## 270                      Chad 1977    4388260 47.38300   1133.9850
## 271                      Chad 1982    4875118 49.51700    797.9081
## 272                      Chad 1987    5498955 51.05100    952.3861
## 273                      Chad 1992    6429417 51.72400   1058.0643
## 274                      Chad 1997    7562011 51.57300   1004.9614
## 275                      Chad 2002    8835739 50.52500   1156.1819
## 276                      Chad 2007   10238807 50.65100   1704.0637
## 277                     Chile 1952    6377619 54.74500   3939.9788
## 278                     Chile 1957    7048426 56.07400   4315.6227
## 279                     Chile 1962    7961258 57.92400   4519.0943
## 280                     Chile 1967    8858908 60.52300   5106.6543
## 281                     Chile 1972    9717524 63.44100   5494.0244
## 282                     Chile 1977   10599793 67.05200   4756.7638
## 283                     Chile 1982   11487112 70.56500   5095.6657
## 284                     Chile 1987   12463354 72.49200   5547.0638
## 285                     Chile 1992   13572994 74.12600   7596.1260
## 286                     Chile 1997   14599929 75.81600  10118.0532
## 287                     Chile 2002   15497046 77.86000  10778.7838
## 288                     Chile 2007   16284741 78.55300  13171.6388
## 289                     China 1952  556263528 44.00000    400.4486
## 290                     China 1957  637408000 50.54896    575.9870
## 291                     China 1962  665770000 44.50136    487.6740
## 292                     China 1967  754550000 58.38112    612.7057
## 293                     China 1972  862030000 63.11888    676.9001
## 294                     China 1977  943455000 63.96736    741.2375
## 295                     China 1982 1000281000 65.52500    962.4214
## 296                     China 1987 1084035000 67.27400   1378.9040
## 297                     China 1992 1164970000 68.69000   1655.7842
## 298                     China 1997 1230075000 70.42600   2289.2341
## 299                     China 2002 1280400000 72.02800   3119.2809
## 300                     China 2007 1318683096 72.96100   4959.1149
## 301                  Colombia 1952   12350771 50.64300   2144.1151
## 302                  Colombia 1957   14485993 55.11800   2323.8056
## 303                  Colombia 1962   17009885 57.86300   2492.3511
## 304                  Colombia 1967   19764027 59.96300   2678.7298
## 305                  Colombia 1972   22542890 61.62300   3264.6600
## 306                  Colombia 1977   25094412 63.83700   3815.8079
## 307                  Colombia 1982   27764644 66.65300   4397.5757
## 308                  Colombia 1987   30964245 67.76800   4903.2191
## 309                  Colombia 1992   34202721 68.42100   5444.6486
## 310                  Colombia 1997   37657830 70.31300   6117.3617
## 311                  Colombia 2002   41008227 71.68200   5755.2600
## 312                  Colombia 2007   44227550 72.88900   7006.5804
## 313                   Comoros 1952     153936 40.71500   1102.9909
## 314                   Comoros 1957     170928 42.46000   1211.1485
## 315                   Comoros 1962     191689 44.46700   1406.6483
## 316                   Comoros 1967     217378 46.47200   1876.0296
## 317                   Comoros 1972     250027 48.94400   1937.5777
## 318                   Comoros 1977     304739 50.93900   1172.6030
## 319                   Comoros 1982     348643 52.93300   1267.1001
## 320                   Comoros 1987     395114 54.92600   1315.9808
## 321                   Comoros 1992     454429 57.93900   1246.9074
## 322                   Comoros 1997     527982 60.66000   1173.6182
## 323                   Comoros 2002     614382 62.97400   1075.8116
## 324                   Comoros 2007     710960 65.15200    986.1479
## 325           Congo Dem. Rep. 1952   14100005 39.14300    780.5423
## 326           Congo Dem. Rep. 1957   15577932 40.65200    905.8602
## 327           Congo Dem. Rep. 1962   17486434 42.12200    896.3146
## 328           Congo Dem. Rep. 1967   19941073 44.05600    861.5932
## 329           Congo Dem. Rep. 1972   23007669 45.98900    904.8961
## 330           Congo Dem. Rep. 1977   26480870 47.80400    795.7573
## 331           Congo Dem. Rep. 1982   30646495 47.78400    673.7478
## 332           Congo Dem. Rep. 1987   35481645 47.41200    672.7748
## 333           Congo Dem. Rep. 1992   41672143 45.54800    457.7192
## 334           Congo Dem. Rep. 1997   47798986 42.58700    312.1884
## 335           Congo Dem. Rep. 2002   55379852 44.96600    241.1659
## 336           Congo Dem. Rep. 2007   64606759 46.46200    277.5519
## 337                Congo Rep. 1952     854885 42.11100   2125.6214
## 338                Congo Rep. 1957     940458 45.05300   2315.0566
## 339                Congo Rep. 1962    1047924 48.43500   2464.7832
## 340                Congo Rep. 1967    1179760 52.04000   2677.9396
## 341                Congo Rep. 1972    1340458 54.90700   3213.1527
## 342                Congo Rep. 1977    1536769 55.62500   3259.1790
## 343                Congo Rep. 1982    1774735 56.69500   4879.5075
## 344                Congo Rep. 1987    2064095 57.47000   4201.1949
## 345                Congo Rep. 1992    2409073 56.43300   4016.2395
## 346                Congo Rep. 1997    2800947 52.96200   3484.1644
## 347                Congo Rep. 2002    3328795 52.97000   3484.0620
## 348                Congo Rep. 2007    3800610 55.32200   3632.5578
## 349                Costa Rica 1952     926317 57.20600   2627.0095
## 350                Costa Rica 1957    1112300 60.02600   2990.0108
## 351                Costa Rica 1962    1345187 62.84200   3460.9370
## 352                Costa Rica 1967    1588717 65.42400   4161.7278
## 353                Costa Rica 1972    1834796 67.84900   5118.1469
## 354                Costa Rica 1977    2108457 70.75000   5926.8770
## 355                Costa Rica 1982    2424367 73.45000   5262.7348
## 356                Costa Rica 1987    2799811 74.75200   5629.9153
## 357                Costa Rica 1992    3173216 75.71300   6160.4163
## 358                Costa Rica 1997    3518107 77.26000   6677.0453
## 359                Costa Rica 2002    3834934 78.12300   7723.4472
## 360                Costa Rica 2007    4133884 78.78200   9645.0614
## 361             Cote d'Ivoire 1952    2977019 40.47700   1388.5947
## 362             Cote d'Ivoire 1957    3300000 42.46900   1500.8959
## 363             Cote d'Ivoire 1962    3832408 44.93000   1728.8694
## 364             Cote d'Ivoire 1967    4744870 47.35000   2052.0505
## 365             Cote d'Ivoire 1972    6071696 49.80100   2378.2011
## 366             Cote d'Ivoire 1977    7459574 52.37400   2517.7365
## 367             Cote d'Ivoire 1982    9025951 53.98300   2602.7102
## 368             Cote d'Ivoire 1987   10761098 54.65500   2156.9561
## 369             Cote d'Ivoire 1992   12772596 52.04400   1648.0738
## 370             Cote d'Ivoire 1997   14625967 47.99100   1786.2654
## 371             Cote d'Ivoire 2002   16252726 46.83200   1648.8008
## 372             Cote d'Ivoire 2007   18013409 48.32800   1544.7501
## 373                   Croatia 1952    3882229 61.21000   3119.2365
## 374                   Croatia 1957    3991242 64.77000   4338.2316
## 375                   Croatia 1962    4076557 67.13000   5477.8900
## 376                   Croatia 1967    4174366 68.50000   6960.2979
## 377                   Croatia 1972    4225310 69.61000   9164.0901
## 378                   Croatia 1977    4318673 70.64000  11305.3852
## 379                   Croatia 1982    4413368 70.46000  13221.8218
## 380                   Croatia 1987    4484310 71.52000  13822.5839
## 381                   Croatia 1992    4494013 72.52700   8447.7949
## 382                   Croatia 1997    4444595 73.68000   9875.6045
## 383                   Croatia 2002    4481020 74.87600  11628.3890
## 384                   Croatia 2007    4493312 75.74800  14619.2227
## 385                      Cuba 1952    6007797 59.42100   5586.5388
## 386                      Cuba 1957    6640752 62.32500   6092.1744
## 387                      Cuba 1962    7254373 65.24600   5180.7559
## 388                      Cuba 1967    8139332 68.29000   5690.2680
## 389                      Cuba 1972    8831348 70.72300   5305.4453
## 390                      Cuba 1977    9537988 72.64900   6380.4950
## 391                      Cuba 1982    9789224 73.71700   7316.9181
## 392                      Cuba 1987   10239839 74.17400   7532.9248
## 393                      Cuba 1992   10723260 74.41400   5592.8440
## 394                      Cuba 1997   10983007 76.15100   5431.9904
## 395                      Cuba 2002   11226999 77.15800   6340.6467
## 396                      Cuba 2007   11416987 78.27300   8948.1029
## 397            Czech Republic 1952    9125183 66.87000   6876.1403
## 398            Czech Republic 1957    9513758 69.03000   8256.3439
## 399            Czech Republic 1962    9620282 69.90000  10136.8671
## 400            Czech Republic 1967    9835109 70.38000  11399.4449
## 401            Czech Republic 1972    9862158 70.29000  13108.4536
## 402            Czech Republic 1977   10161915 70.71000  14800.1606
## 403            Czech Republic 1982   10303704 70.96000  15377.2285
## 404            Czech Republic 1987   10311597 71.58000  16310.4434
## 405            Czech Republic 1992   10315702 72.40000  14297.0212
## 406            Czech Republic 1997   10300707 74.01000  16048.5142
## 407            Czech Republic 2002   10256295 75.51000  17596.2102
## 408            Czech Republic 2007   10228744 76.48600  22833.3085
## 409                   Denmark 1952    4334000 70.78000   9692.3852
## 410                   Denmark 1957    4487831 71.81000  11099.6593
## 411                   Denmark 1962    4646899 72.35000  13583.3135
## 412                   Denmark 1967    4838800 72.96000  15937.2112
## 413                   Denmark 1972    4991596 73.47000  18866.2072
## 414                   Denmark 1977    5088419 74.69000  20422.9015
## 415                   Denmark 1982    5117810 74.63000  21688.0405
## 416                   Denmark 1987    5127024 74.80000  25116.1758
## 417                   Denmark 1992    5171393 75.33000  26406.7399
## 418                   Denmark 1997    5283663 76.11000  29804.3457
## 419                   Denmark 2002    5374693 77.18000  32166.5001
## 420                   Denmark 2007    5468120 78.33200  35278.4187
## 421                  Djibouti 1952      63149 34.81200   2669.5295
## 422                  Djibouti 1957      71851 37.32800   2864.9691
## 423                  Djibouti 1962      89898 39.69300   3020.9893
## 424                  Djibouti 1967     127617 42.07400   3020.0505
## 425                  Djibouti 1972     178848 44.36600   3694.2124
## 426                  Djibouti 1977     228694 46.51900   3081.7610
## 427                  Djibouti 1982     305991 48.81200   2879.4681
## 428                  Djibouti 1987     311025 50.04000   2880.1026
## 429                  Djibouti 1992     384156 51.60400   2377.1562
## 430                  Djibouti 1997     417908 53.15700   1895.0170
## 431                  Djibouti 2002     447416 53.37300   1908.2609
## 432                  Djibouti 2007     496374 54.79100   2082.4816
## 433        Dominican Republic 1952    2491346 45.92800   1397.7171
## 434        Dominican Republic 1957    2923186 49.82800   1544.4030
## 435        Dominican Republic 1962    3453434 53.45900   1662.1374
## 436        Dominican Republic 1967    4049146 56.75100   1653.7230
## 437        Dominican Republic 1972    4671329 59.63100   2189.8745
## 438        Dominican Republic 1977    5302800 61.78800   2681.9889
## 439        Dominican Republic 1982    5968349 63.72700   2861.0924
## 440        Dominican Republic 1987    6655297 66.04600   2899.8422
## 441        Dominican Republic 1992    7351181 68.45700   3044.2142
## 442        Dominican Republic 1997    7992357 69.95700   3614.1013
## 443        Dominican Republic 2002    8650322 70.84700   4563.8082
## 444        Dominican Republic 2007    9319622 72.23500   6025.3748
## 445                   Ecuador 1952    3548753 48.35700   3522.1107
## 446                   Ecuador 1957    4058385 51.35600   3780.5467
## 447                   Ecuador 1962    4681707 54.64000   4086.1141
## 448                   Ecuador 1967    5432424 56.67800   4579.0742
## 449                   Ecuador 1972    6298651 58.79600   5280.9947
## 450                   Ecuador 1977    7278866 61.31000   6679.6233
## 451                   Ecuador 1982    8365850 64.34200   7213.7913
## 452                   Ecuador 1987    9545158 67.23100   6481.7770
## 453                   Ecuador 1992   10748394 69.61300   7103.7026
## 454                   Ecuador 1997   11911819 72.31200   7429.4559
## 455                   Ecuador 2002   12921234 74.17300   5773.0445
## 456                   Ecuador 2007   13755680 74.99400   6873.2623
## 457                     Egypt 1952   22223309 41.89300   1418.8224
## 458                     Egypt 1957   25009741 44.44400   1458.9153
## 459                     Egypt 1962   28173309 46.99200   1693.3359
## 460                     Egypt 1967   31681188 49.29300   1814.8807
## 461                     Egypt 1972   34807417 51.13700   2024.0081
## 462                     Egypt 1977   38783863 53.31900   2785.4936
## 463                     Egypt 1982   45681811 56.00600   3503.7296
## 464                     Egypt 1987   52799062 59.79700   3885.4607
## 465                     Egypt 1992   59402198 63.67400   3794.7552
## 466                     Egypt 1997   66134291 67.21700   4173.1818
## 467                     Egypt 2002   73312559 69.80600   4754.6044
## 468                     Egypt 2007   80264543 71.33800   5581.1810
## 469               El Salvador 1952    2042865 45.26200   3048.3029
## 470               El Salvador 1957    2355805 48.57000   3421.5232
## 471               El Salvador 1962    2747687 52.30700   3776.8036
## 472               El Salvador 1967    3232927 55.85500   4358.5954
## 473               El Salvador 1972    3790903 58.20700   4520.2460
## 474               El Salvador 1977    4282586 56.69600   5138.9224
## 475               El Salvador 1982    4474873 56.60400   4098.3442
## 476               El Salvador 1987    4842194 63.15400   4140.4421
## 477               El Salvador 1992    5274649 66.79800   4444.2317
## 478               El Salvador 1997    5783439 69.53500   5154.8255
## 479               El Salvador 2002    6353681 70.73400   5351.5687
## 480               El Salvador 2007    6939688 71.87800   5728.3535
## 481         Equatorial Guinea 1952     216964 34.48200    375.6431
## 482         Equatorial Guinea 1957     232922 35.98300    426.0964
## 483         Equatorial Guinea 1962     249220 37.48500    582.8420
## 484         Equatorial Guinea 1967     259864 38.98700    915.5960
## 485         Equatorial Guinea 1972     277603 40.51600    672.4123
## 486         Equatorial Guinea 1977     192675 42.02400    958.5668
## 487         Equatorial Guinea 1982     285483 43.66200    927.8253
## 488         Equatorial Guinea 1987     341244 45.66400    966.8968
## 489         Equatorial Guinea 1992     387838 47.54500   1132.0550
## 490         Equatorial Guinea 1997     439971 48.24500   2814.4808
## 491         Equatorial Guinea 2002     495627 49.34800   7703.4959
## 492         Equatorial Guinea 2007     551201 51.57900  12154.0897
## 493                   Eritrea 1952    1438760 35.92800    328.9406
## 494                   Eritrea 1957    1542611 38.04700    344.1619
## 495                   Eritrea 1962    1666618 40.15800    380.9958
## 496                   Eritrea 1967    1820319 42.18900    468.7950
## 497                   Eritrea 1972    2260187 44.14200    514.3242
## 498                   Eritrea 1977    2512642 44.53500    505.7538
## 499                   Eritrea 1982    2637297 43.89000    524.8758
## 500                   Eritrea 1987    2915959 46.45300    521.1341
## 501                   Eritrea 1992    3668440 49.99100    582.8585
## 502                   Eritrea 1997    4058319 53.37800    913.4708
## 503                   Eritrea 2002    4414865 55.24000    765.3500
## 504                   Eritrea 2007    4906585 58.04000    641.3695
## 505                  Ethiopia 1952   20860941 34.07800    362.1463
## 506                  Ethiopia 1957   22815614 36.66700    378.9042
## 507                  Ethiopia 1962   25145372 40.05900    419.4564
## 508                  Ethiopia 1967   27860297 42.11500    516.1186
## 509                  Ethiopia 1972   30770372 43.51500    566.2439
## 510                  Ethiopia 1977   34617799 44.51000    556.8084
## 511                  Ethiopia 1982   38111756 44.91600    577.8607
## 512                  Ethiopia 1987   42999530 46.68400    573.7413
## 513                  Ethiopia 1992   52088559 48.09100    421.3535
## 514                  Ethiopia 1997   59861301 49.40200    515.8894
## 515                  Ethiopia 2002   67946797 50.72500    530.0535
## 516                  Ethiopia 2007   76511887 52.94700    690.8056
## 517                   Finland 1952    4090500 66.55000   6424.5191
## 518                   Finland 1957    4324000 67.49000   7545.4154
## 519                   Finland 1962    4491443 68.75000   9371.8426
## 520                   Finland 1967    4605744 69.83000  10921.6363
## 521                   Finland 1972    4639657 70.87000  14358.8759
## 522                   Finland 1977    4738902 72.52000  15605.4228
## 523                   Finland 1982    4826933 74.55000  18533.1576
## 524                   Finland 1987    4931729 74.83000  21141.0122
## 525                   Finland 1992    5041039 75.70000  20647.1650
## 526                   Finland 1997    5134406 77.13000  23723.9502
## 527                   Finland 2002    5193039 78.37000  28204.5906
## 528                   Finland 2007    5238460 79.31300  33207.0844
## 529                    France 1952   42459667 67.41000   7029.8093
## 530                    France 1957   44310863 68.93000   8662.8349
## 531                    France 1962   47124000 70.51000  10560.4855
## 532                    France 1967   49569000 71.55000  12999.9177
## 533                    France 1972   51732000 72.38000  16107.1917
## 534                    France 1977   53165019 73.83000  18292.6351
## 535                    France 1982   54433565 74.89000  20293.8975
## 536                    France 1987   55630100 76.34000  22066.4421
## 537                    France 1992   57374179 77.46000  24703.7961
## 538                    France 1997   58623428 78.64000  25889.7849
## 539                    France 2002   59925035 79.59000  28926.0323
## 540                    France 2007   61083916 80.65700  30470.0167
## 541                     Gabon 1952     420702 37.00300   4293.4765
## 542                     Gabon 1957     434904 38.99900   4976.1981
## 543                     Gabon 1962     455661 40.48900   6631.4592
## 544                     Gabon 1967     489004 44.59800   8358.7620
## 545                     Gabon 1972     537977 48.69000  11401.9484
## 546                     Gabon 1977     706367 52.79000  21745.5733
## 547                     Gabon 1982     753874 56.56400  15113.3619
## 548                     Gabon 1987     880397 60.19000  11864.4084
## 549                     Gabon 1992     985739 61.36600  13522.1575
## 550                     Gabon 1997    1126189 60.46100  14722.8419
## 551                     Gabon 2002    1299304 56.76100  12521.7139
## 552                     Gabon 2007    1454867 56.73500  13206.4845
## 553                    Gambia 1952     284320 30.00000    485.2307
## 554                    Gambia 1957     323150 32.06500    520.9267
## 555                    Gambia 1962     374020 33.89600    599.6503
## 556                    Gambia 1967     439593 35.85700    734.7829
## 557                    Gambia 1972     517101 38.30800    756.0868
## 558                    Gambia 1977     608274 41.84200    884.7553
## 559                    Gambia 1982     715523 45.58000    835.8096
## 560                    Gambia 1987     848406 49.26500    611.6589
## 561                    Gambia 1992    1025384 52.64400    665.6244
## 562                    Gambia 1997    1235767 55.86100    653.7302
## 563                    Gambia 2002    1457766 58.04100    660.5856
## 564                    Gambia 2007    1688359 59.44800    752.7497
## 565                   Germany 1952   69145952 67.50000   7144.1144
## 566                   Germany 1957   71019069 69.10000  10187.8267
## 567                   Germany 1962   73739117 70.30000  12902.4629
## 568                   Germany 1967   76368453 70.80000  14745.6256
## 569                   Germany 1972   78717088 71.00000  18016.1803
## 570                   Germany 1977   78160773 72.50000  20512.9212
## 571                   Germany 1982   78335266 73.80000  22031.5327
## 572                   Germany 1987   77718298 74.84700  24639.1857
## 573                   Germany 1992   80597764 76.07000  26505.3032
## 574                   Germany 1997   82011073 77.34000  27788.8842
## 575                   Germany 2002   82350671 78.67000  30035.8020
## 576                   Germany 2007   82400996 79.40600  32170.3744
## 577                     Ghana 1952    5581001 43.14900    911.2989
## 578                     Ghana 1957    6391288 44.77900   1043.5615
## 579                     Ghana 1962    7355248 46.45200   1190.0411
## 580                     Ghana 1967    8490213 48.07200   1125.6972
## 581                     Ghana 1972    9354120 49.87500   1178.2237
## 582                     Ghana 1977   10538093 51.75600    993.2240
## 583                     Ghana 1982   11400338 53.74400    876.0326
## 584                     Ghana 1987   14168101 55.72900    847.0061
## 585                     Ghana 1992   16278738 57.50100    925.0602
## 586                     Ghana 1997   18418288 58.55600   1005.2458
## 587                     Ghana 2002   20550751 58.45300   1111.9846
## 588                     Ghana 2007   22873338 60.02200   1327.6089
## 589                    Greece 1952    7733250 65.86000   3530.6901
## 590                    Greece 1957    8096218 67.86000   4916.2999
## 591                    Greece 1962    8448233 69.51000   6017.1907
## 592                    Greece 1967    8716441 71.00000   8513.0970
## 593                    Greece 1972    8888628 72.34000  12724.8296
## 594                    Greece 1977    9308479 73.68000  14195.5243
## 595                    Greece 1982    9786480 75.24000  15268.4209
## 596                    Greece 1987    9974490 76.67000  16120.5284
## 597                    Greece 1992   10325429 77.03000  17541.4963
## 598                    Greece 1997   10502372 77.86900  18747.6981
## 599                    Greece 2002   10603863 78.25600  22514.2548
## 600                    Greece 2007   10706290 79.48300  27538.4119
## 601                 Guatemala 1952    3146381 42.02300   2428.2378
## 602                 Guatemala 1957    3640876 44.14200   2617.1560
## 603                 Guatemala 1962    4208858 46.95400   2750.3644
## 604                 Guatemala 1967    4690773 50.01600   3242.5311
## 605                 Guatemala 1972    5149581 53.73800   4031.4083
## 606                 Guatemala 1977    5703430 56.02900   4879.9927
## 607                 Guatemala 1982    6395630 58.13700   4820.4948
## 608                 Guatemala 1987    7326406 60.78200   4246.4860
## 609                 Guatemala 1992    8486949 63.37300   4439.4508
## 610                 Guatemala 1997    9803875 66.32200   4684.3138
## 611                 Guatemala 2002   11178650 68.97800   4858.3475
## 612                 Guatemala 2007   12572928 70.25900   5186.0500
## 613                    Guinea 1952    2664249 33.60900    510.1965
## 614                    Guinea 1957    2876726 34.55800    576.2670
## 615                    Guinea 1962    3140003 35.75300    686.3737
## 616                    Guinea 1967    3451418 37.19700    708.7595
## 617                    Guinea 1972    3811387 38.84200    741.6662
## 618                    Guinea 1977    4227026 40.76200    874.6859
## 619                    Guinea 1982    4710497 42.89100    857.2504
## 620                    Guinea 1987    5650262 45.55200    805.5725
## 621                    Guinea 1992    6990574 48.57600    794.3484
## 622                    Guinea 1997    8048834 51.45500    869.4498
## 623                    Guinea 2002    8807818 53.67600    945.5836
## 624                    Guinea 2007    9947814 56.00700    942.6542
## 625             Guinea-Bissau 1952     580653 32.50000    299.8503
## 626             Guinea-Bissau 1957     601095 33.48900    431.7905
## 627             Guinea-Bissau 1962     627820 34.48800    522.0344
## 628             Guinea-Bissau 1967     601287 35.49200    715.5806
## 629             Guinea-Bissau 1972     625361 36.48600    820.2246
## 630             Guinea-Bissau 1977     745228 37.46500    764.7260
## 631             Guinea-Bissau 1982     825987 39.32700    838.1240
## 632             Guinea-Bissau 1987     927524 41.24500    736.4154
## 633             Guinea-Bissau 1992    1050938 43.26600    745.5399
## 634             Guinea-Bissau 1997    1193708 44.87300    796.6645
## 635             Guinea-Bissau 2002    1332459 45.50400    575.7047
## 636             Guinea-Bissau 2007    1472041 46.38800    579.2317
## 637                     Haiti 1952    3201488 37.57900   1840.3669
## 638                     Haiti 1957    3507701 40.69600   1726.8879
## 639                     Haiti 1962    3880130 43.59000   1796.5890
## 640                     Haiti 1967    4318137 46.24300   1452.0577
## 641                     Haiti 1972    4698301 48.04200   1654.4569
## 642                     Haiti 1977    4908554 49.92300   1874.2989
## 643                     Haiti 1982    5198399 51.46100   2011.1595
## 644                     Haiti 1987    5756203 53.63600   1823.0160
## 645                     Haiti 1992    6326682 55.08900   1456.3095
## 646                     Haiti 1997    6913545 56.67100   1341.7269
## 647                     Haiti 2002    7607651 58.13700   1270.3649
## 648                     Haiti 2007    8502814 60.91600   1201.6372
## 649                  Honduras 1952    1517453 41.91200   2194.9262
## 650                  Honduras 1957    1770390 44.66500   2220.4877
## 651                  Honduras 1962    2090162 48.04100   2291.1568
## 652                  Honduras 1967    2500689 50.92400   2538.2694
## 653                  Honduras 1972    2965146 53.88400   2529.8423
## 654                  Honduras 1977    3055235 57.40200   3203.2081
## 655                  Honduras 1982    3669448 60.90900   3121.7608
## 656                  Honduras 1987    4372203 64.49200   3023.0967
## 657                  Honduras 1992    5077347 66.39900   3081.6946
## 658                  Honduras 1997    5867957 67.65900   3160.4549
## 659                  Honduras 2002    6677328 68.56500   3099.7287
## 660                  Honduras 2007    7483763 70.19800   3548.3308
## 661           Hong Kong China 1952    2125900 60.96000   3054.4212
## 662           Hong Kong China 1957    2736300 64.75000   3629.0765
## 663           Hong Kong China 1962    3305200 67.65000   4692.6483
## 664           Hong Kong China 1967    3722800 70.00000   6197.9628
## 665           Hong Kong China 1972    4115700 72.00000   8315.9281
## 666           Hong Kong China 1977    4583700 73.60000  11186.1413
## 667           Hong Kong China 1982    5264500 75.45000  14560.5305
## 668           Hong Kong China 1987    5584510 76.20000  20038.4727
## 669           Hong Kong China 1992    5829696 77.60100  24757.6030
## 670           Hong Kong China 1997    6495918 80.00000  28377.6322
## 671           Hong Kong China 2002    6762476 81.49500  30209.0152
## 672           Hong Kong China 2007    6980412 82.20800  39724.9787
## 673                   Hungary 1952    9504000 64.03000   5263.6738
## 674                   Hungary 1957    9839000 66.41000   6040.1800
## 675                   Hungary 1962   10063000 67.96000   7550.3599
## 676                   Hungary 1967   10223422 69.50000   9326.6447
## 677                   Hungary 1972   10394091 69.76000  10168.6561
## 678                   Hungary 1977   10637171 69.95000  11674.8374
## 679                   Hungary 1982   10705535 69.39000  12545.9907
## 680                   Hungary 1987   10612740 69.58000  12986.4800
## 681                   Hungary 1992   10348684 69.17000  10535.6285
## 682                   Hungary 1997   10244684 71.04000  11712.7768
## 683                   Hungary 2002   10083313 72.59000  14843.9356
## 684                   Hungary 2007    9956108 73.33800  18008.9444
## 685                   Iceland 1952     147962 72.49000   7267.6884
## 686                   Iceland 1957     165110 73.47000   9244.0014
## 687                   Iceland 1962     182053 73.68000  10350.1591
## 688                   Iceland 1967     198676 73.73000  13319.8957
## 689                   Iceland 1972     209275 74.46000  15798.0636
## 690                   Iceland 1977     221823 76.11000  19654.9625
## 691                   Iceland 1982     233997 76.99000  23269.6075
## 692                   Iceland 1987     244676 77.23000  26923.2063
## 693                   Iceland 1992     259012 78.77000  25144.3920
## 694                   Iceland 1997     271192 78.95000  28061.0997
## 695                   Iceland 2002     288030 80.50000  31163.2020
## 696                   Iceland 2007     301931 81.75700  36180.7892
## 697                     India 1952  372000000 37.37300    546.5657
## 698                     India 1957  409000000 40.24900    590.0620
## 699                     India 1962  454000000 43.60500    658.3472
## 700                     India 1967  506000000 47.19300    700.7706
## 701                     India 1972  567000000 50.65100    724.0325
## 702                     India 1977  634000000 54.20800    813.3373
## 703                     India 1982  708000000 56.59600    855.7235
## 704                     India 1987  788000000 58.55300    976.5127
## 705                     India 1992  872000000 60.22300   1164.4068
## 706                     India 1997  959000000 61.76500   1458.8174
## 707                     India 2002 1034172547 62.87900   1746.7695
## 708                     India 2007 1110396331 64.69800   2452.2104
## 709                 Indonesia 1952   82052000 37.46800    749.6817
## 710                 Indonesia 1957   90124000 39.91800    858.9003
## 711                 Indonesia 1962   99028000 42.51800    849.2898
## 712                 Indonesia 1967  109343000 45.96400    762.4318
## 713                 Indonesia 1972  121282000 49.20300   1111.1079
## 714                 Indonesia 1977  136725000 52.70200   1382.7021
## 715                 Indonesia 1982  153343000 56.15900   1516.8730
## 716                 Indonesia 1987  169276000 60.13700   1748.3570
## 717                 Indonesia 1992  184816000 62.68100   2383.1409
## 718                 Indonesia 1997  199278000 66.04100   3119.3356
## 719                 Indonesia 2002  211060000 68.58800   2873.9129
## 720                 Indonesia 2007  223547000 70.65000   3540.6516
## 721                      Iran 1952   17272000 44.86900   3035.3260
## 722                      Iran 1957   19792000 47.18100   3290.2576
## 723                      Iran 1962   22874000 49.32500   4187.3298
## 724                      Iran 1967   26538000 52.46900   5906.7318
## 725                      Iran 1972   30614000 55.23400   9613.8186
## 726                      Iran 1977   35480679 57.70200  11888.5951
## 727                      Iran 1982   43072751 59.62000   7608.3346
## 728                      Iran 1987   51889696 63.04000   6642.8814
## 729                      Iran 1992   60397973 65.74200   7235.6532
## 730                      Iran 1997   63327987 68.04200   8263.5903
## 731                      Iran 2002   66907826 69.45100   9240.7620
## 732                      Iran 2007   69453570 70.96400  11605.7145
## 733                      Iraq 1952    5441766 45.32000   4129.7661
## 734                      Iraq 1957    6248643 48.43700   6229.3336
## 735                      Iraq 1962    7240260 51.45700   8341.7378
## 736                      Iraq 1967    8519282 54.45900   8931.4598
## 737                      Iraq 1972   10061506 56.95000   9576.0376
## 738                      Iraq 1977   11882916 60.41300  14688.2351
## 739                      Iraq 1982   14173318 62.03800  14517.9071
## 740                      Iraq 1987   16543189 65.04400  11643.5727
## 741                      Iraq 1992   17861905 59.46100   3745.6407
## 742                      Iraq 1997   20775703 58.81100   3076.2398
## 743                      Iraq 2002   24001816 57.04600   4390.7173
## 744                      Iraq 2007   27499638 59.54500   4471.0619
## 745                   Ireland 1952    2952156 66.91000   5210.2803
## 746                   Ireland 1957    2878220 68.90000   5599.0779
## 747                   Ireland 1962    2830000 70.29000   6631.5973
## 748                   Ireland 1967    2900100 71.08000   7655.5690
## 749                   Ireland 1972    3024400 71.28000   9530.7729
## 750                   Ireland 1977    3271900 72.03000  11150.9811
## 751                   Ireland 1982    3480000 73.10000  12618.3214
## 752                   Ireland 1987    3539900 74.36000  13872.8665
## 753                   Ireland 1992    3557761 75.46700  17558.8155
## 754                   Ireland 1997    3667233 76.12200  24521.9471
## 755                   Ireland 2002    3879155 77.78300  34077.0494
## 756                   Ireland 2007    4109086 78.88500  40675.9964
## 757                    Israel 1952    1620914 65.39000   4086.5221
## 758                    Israel 1957    1944401 67.84000   5385.2785
## 759                    Israel 1962    2310904 69.39000   7105.6307
## 760                    Israel 1967    2693585 70.75000   8393.7414
## 761                    Israel 1972    3095893 71.63000  12786.9322
## 762                    Israel 1977    3495918 73.06000  13306.6192
## 763                    Israel 1982    3858421 74.45000  15367.0292
## 764                    Israel 1987    4203148 75.60000  17122.4799
## 765                    Israel 1992    4936550 76.93000  18051.5225
## 766                    Israel 1997    5531387 78.26900  20896.6092
## 767                    Israel 2002    6029529 79.69600  21905.5951
## 768                    Israel 2007    6426679 80.74500  25523.2771
## 769                     Italy 1952   47666000 65.94000   4931.4042
## 770                     Italy 1957   49182000 67.81000   6248.6562
## 771                     Italy 1962   50843200 69.24000   8243.5823
## 772                     Italy 1967   52667100 71.06000  10022.4013
## 773                     Italy 1972   54365564 72.19000  12269.2738
## 774                     Italy 1977   56059245 73.48000  14255.9847
## 775                     Italy 1982   56535636 74.98000  16537.4835
## 776                     Italy 1987   56729703 76.42000  19207.2348
## 777                     Italy 1992   56840847 77.44000  22013.6449
## 778                     Italy 1997   57479469 78.82000  24675.0245
## 779                     Italy 2002   57926999 80.24000  27968.0982
## 780                     Italy 2007   58147733 80.54600  28569.7197
## 781                   Jamaica 1952    1426095 58.53000   2898.5309
## 782                   Jamaica 1957    1535090 62.61000   4756.5258
## 783                   Jamaica 1962    1665128 65.61000   5246.1075
## 784                   Jamaica 1967    1861096 67.51000   6124.7035
## 785                   Jamaica 1972    1997616 69.00000   7433.8893
## 786                   Jamaica 1977    2156814 70.11000   6650.1956
## 787                   Jamaica 1982    2298309 71.21000   6068.0513
## 788                   Jamaica 1987    2326606 71.77000   6351.2375
## 789                   Jamaica 1992    2378618 71.76600   7404.9237
## 790                   Jamaica 1997    2531311 72.26200   7121.9247
## 791                   Jamaica 2002    2664659 72.04700   6994.7749
## 792                   Jamaica 2007    2780132 72.56700   7320.8803
## 793                     Japan 1952   86459025 63.03000   3216.9563
## 794                     Japan 1957   91563009 65.50000   4317.6944
## 795                     Japan 1962   95831757 68.73000   6576.6495
## 796                     Japan 1967  100825279 71.43000   9847.7886
## 797                     Japan 1972  107188273 73.42000  14778.7864
## 798                     Japan 1977  113872473 75.38000  16610.3770
## 799                     Japan 1982  118454974 77.11000  19384.1057
## 800                     Japan 1987  122091325 78.67000  22375.9419
## 801                     Japan 1992  124329269 79.36000  26824.8951
## 802                     Japan 1997  125956499 80.69000  28816.5850
## 803                     Japan 2002  127065841 82.00000  28604.5919
## 804                     Japan 2007  127467972 82.60300  31656.0681
## 805                    Jordan 1952     607914 43.15800   1546.9078
## 806                    Jordan 1957     746559 45.66900   1886.0806
## 807                    Jordan 1962     933559 48.12600   2348.0092
## 808                    Jordan 1967    1255058 51.62900   2741.7963
## 809                    Jordan 1972    1613551 56.52800   2110.8563
## 810                    Jordan 1977    1937652 61.13400   2852.3516
## 811                    Jordan 1982    2347031 63.73900   4161.4160
## 812                    Jordan 1987    2820042 65.86900   4448.6799
## 813                    Jordan 1992    3867409 68.01500   3431.5936
## 814                    Jordan 1997    4526235 69.77200   3645.3796
## 815                    Jordan 2002    5307470 71.26300   3844.9172
## 816                    Jordan 2007    6053193 72.53500   4519.4612
## 817                     Kenya 1952    6464046 42.27000    853.5409
## 818                     Kenya 1957    7454779 44.68600    944.4383
## 819                     Kenya 1962    8678557 47.94900    896.9664
## 820                     Kenya 1967   10191512 50.65400   1056.7365
## 821                     Kenya 1972   12044785 53.55900   1222.3600
## 822                     Kenya 1977   14500404 56.15500   1267.6132
## 823                     Kenya 1982   17661452 58.76600   1348.2258
## 824                     Kenya 1987   21198082 59.33900   1361.9369
## 825                     Kenya 1992   25020539 59.28500   1341.9217
## 826                     Kenya 1997   28263827 54.40700   1360.4850
## 827                     Kenya 2002   31386842 50.99200   1287.5147
## 828                     Kenya 2007   35610177 54.11000   1463.2493
## 829           Korea Dem. Rep. 1952    8865488 50.05600   1088.2778
## 830           Korea Dem. Rep. 1957    9411381 54.08100   1571.1347
## 831           Korea Dem. Rep. 1962   10917494 56.65600   1621.6936
## 832           Korea Dem. Rep. 1967   12617009 59.94200   2143.5406
## 833           Korea Dem. Rep. 1972   14781241 63.98300   3701.6215
## 834           Korea Dem. Rep. 1977   16325320 67.15900   4106.3012
## 835           Korea Dem. Rep. 1982   17647518 69.10000   4106.5253
## 836           Korea Dem. Rep. 1987   19067554 70.64700   4106.4923
## 837           Korea Dem. Rep. 1992   20711375 69.97800   3726.0635
## 838           Korea Dem. Rep. 1997   21585105 67.72700   1690.7568
## 839           Korea Dem. Rep. 2002   22215365 66.66200   1646.7582
## 840           Korea Dem. Rep. 2007   23301725 67.29700   1593.0655
## 841                Korea Rep. 1952   20947571 47.45300   1030.5922
## 842                Korea Rep. 1957   22611552 52.68100   1487.5935
## 843                Korea Rep. 1962   26420307 55.29200   1536.3444
## 844                Korea Rep. 1967   30131000 57.71600   2029.2281
## 845                Korea Rep. 1972   33505000 62.61200   3030.8767
## 846                Korea Rep. 1977   36436000 64.76600   4657.2210
## 847                Korea Rep. 1982   39326000 67.12300   5622.9425
## 848                Korea Rep. 1987   41622000 69.81000   8533.0888
## 849                Korea Rep. 1992   43805450 72.24400  12104.2787
## 850                Korea Rep. 1997   46173816 74.64700  15993.5280
## 851                Korea Rep. 2002   47969150 77.04500  19233.9882
## 852                Korea Rep. 2007   49044790 78.62300  23348.1397
## 853                    Kuwait 1952     160000 55.56500 108382.3529
## 854                    Kuwait 1957     212846 58.03300 113523.1329
## 855                    Kuwait 1962     358266 60.47000  95458.1118
## 856                    Kuwait 1967     575003 64.62400  80894.8833
## 857                    Kuwait 1972     841934 67.71200 109347.8670
## 858                    Kuwait 1977    1140357 69.34300  59265.4771
## 859                    Kuwait 1982    1497494 71.30900  31354.0357
## 860                    Kuwait 1987    1891487 74.17400  28118.4300
## 861                    Kuwait 1992    1418095 75.19000  34932.9196
## 862                    Kuwait 1997    1765345 76.15600  40300.6200
## 863                    Kuwait 2002    2111561 76.90400  35110.1057
## 864                    Kuwait 2007    2505559 77.58800  47306.9898
## 865                   Lebanon 1952    1439529 55.92800   4834.8041
## 866                   Lebanon 1957    1647412 59.48900   6089.7869
## 867                   Lebanon 1962    1886848 62.09400   5714.5606
## 868                   Lebanon 1967    2186894 63.87000   6006.9830
## 869                   Lebanon 1972    2680018 65.42100   7486.3843
## 870                   Lebanon 1977    3115787 66.09900   8659.6968
## 871                   Lebanon 1982    3086876 66.98300   7640.5195
## 872                   Lebanon 1987    3089353 67.92600   5377.0913
## 873                   Lebanon 1992    3219994 69.29200   6890.8069
## 874                   Lebanon 1997    3430388 70.26500   8754.9639
## 875                   Lebanon 2002    3677780 71.02800   9313.9388
## 876                   Lebanon 2007    3921278 71.99300  10461.0587
## 877                   Lesotho 1952     748747 42.13800    298.8462
## 878                   Lesotho 1957     813338 45.04700    335.9971
## 879                   Lesotho 1962     893143 47.74700    411.8006
## 880                   Lesotho 1967     996380 48.49200    498.6390
## 881                   Lesotho 1972    1116779 49.76700    496.5816
## 882                   Lesotho 1977    1251524 52.20800    745.3695
## 883                   Lesotho 1982    1411807 55.07800    797.2631
## 884                   Lesotho 1987    1599200 57.18000    773.9932
## 885                   Lesotho 1992    1803195 59.68500    977.4863
## 886                   Lesotho 1997    1982823 55.55800   1186.1480
## 887                   Lesotho 2002    2046772 44.59300   1275.1846
## 888                   Lesotho 2007    2012649 42.59200   1569.3314
## 889                   Liberia 1952     863308 38.48000    575.5730
## 890                   Liberia 1957     975950 39.48600    620.9700
## 891                   Liberia 1962    1112796 40.50200    634.1952
## 892                   Liberia 1967    1279406 41.53600    713.6036
## 893                   Liberia 1972    1482628 42.61400    803.0055
## 894                   Liberia 1977    1703617 43.76400    640.3224
## 895                   Liberia 1982    1956875 44.85200    572.1996
## 896                   Liberia 1987    2269414 46.02700    506.1139
## 897                   Liberia 1992    1912974 40.80200    636.6229
## 898                   Liberia 1997    2200725 42.22100    609.1740
## 899                   Liberia 2002    2814651 43.75300    531.4824
## 900                   Liberia 2007    3193942 45.67800    414.5073
## 901                     Libya 1952    1019729 42.72300   2387.5481
## 902                     Libya 1957    1201578 45.28900   3448.2844
## 903                     Libya 1962    1441863 47.80800   6757.0308
## 904                     Libya 1967    1759224 50.22700  18772.7517
## 905                     Libya 1972    2183877 52.77300  21011.4972
## 906                     Libya 1977    2721783 57.44200  21951.2118
## 907                     Libya 1982    3344074 62.15500  17364.2754
## 908                     Libya 1987    3799845 66.23400  11770.5898
## 909                     Libya 1992    4364501 68.75500   9640.1385
## 910                     Libya 1997    4759670 71.55500   9467.4461
## 911                     Libya 2002    5368585 72.73700   9534.6775
## 912                     Libya 2007    6036914 73.95200  12057.4993
## 913                Madagascar 1952    4762912 36.68100   1443.0117
## 914                Madagascar 1957    5181679 38.86500   1589.2027
## 915                Madagascar 1962    5703324 40.84800   1643.3871
## 916                Madagascar 1967    6334556 42.88100   1634.0473
## 917                Madagascar 1972    7082430 44.85100   1748.5630
## 918                Madagascar 1977    8007166 46.88100   1544.2286
## 919                Madagascar 1982    9171477 48.96900   1302.8787
## 920                Madagascar 1987   10568642 49.35000   1155.4419
## 921                Madagascar 1992   12210395 52.21400   1040.6762
## 922                Madagascar 1997   14165114 54.97800    986.2959
## 923                Madagascar 2002   16473477 57.28600    894.6371
## 924                Madagascar 2007   19167654 59.44300   1044.7701
## 925                    Malawi 1952    2917802 36.25600    369.1651
## 926                    Malawi 1957    3221238 37.20700    416.3698
## 927                    Malawi 1962    3628608 38.41000    427.9011
## 928                    Malawi 1967    4147252 39.48700    495.5148
## 929                    Malawi 1972    4730997 41.76600    584.6220
## 930                    Malawi 1977    5637246 43.76700    663.2237
## 931                    Malawi 1982    6502825 45.64200    632.8039
## 932                    Malawi 1987    7824747 47.45700    635.5174
## 933                    Malawi 1992   10014249 49.42000    563.2000
## 934                    Malawi 1997   10419991 47.49500    692.2758
## 935                    Malawi 2002   11824495 45.00900    665.4231
## 936                    Malawi 2007   13327079 48.30300    759.3499
## 937                  Malaysia 1952    6748378 48.46300   1831.1329
## 938                  Malaysia 1957    7739235 52.10200   1810.0670
## 939                  Malaysia 1962    8906385 55.73700   2036.8849
## 940                  Malaysia 1967   10154878 59.37100   2277.7424
## 941                  Malaysia 1972   11441462 63.01000   2849.0948
## 942                  Malaysia 1977   12845381 65.25600   3827.9216
## 943                  Malaysia 1982   14441916 68.00000   4920.3560
## 944                  Malaysia 1987   16331785 69.50000   5249.8027
## 945                  Malaysia 1992   18319502 70.69300   7277.9128
## 946                  Malaysia 1997   20476091 71.93800  10132.9096
## 947                  Malaysia 2002   22662365 73.04400  10206.9779
## 948                  Malaysia 2007   24821286 74.24100  12451.6558
## 949                      Mali 1952    3838168 33.68500    452.3370
## 950                      Mali 1957    4241884 35.30700    490.3822
## 951                      Mali 1962    4690372 36.93600    496.1743
## 952                      Mali 1967    5212416 38.48700    545.0099
## 953                      Mali 1972    5828158 39.97700    581.3689
## 954                      Mali 1977    6491649 41.71400    686.3953
## 955                      Mali 1982    6998256 43.91600    618.0141
## 956                      Mali 1987    7634008 46.36400    684.1716
## 957                      Mali 1992    8416215 48.38800    739.0144
## 958                      Mali 1997    9384984 49.90300    790.2580
## 959                      Mali 2002   10580176 51.81800    951.4098
## 960                      Mali 2007   12031795 54.46700   1042.5816
## 961                Mauritania 1952    1022556 40.54300    743.1159
## 962                Mauritania 1957    1076852 42.33800    846.1203
## 963                Mauritania 1962    1146757 44.24800   1055.8960
## 964                Mauritania 1967    1230542 46.28900   1421.1452
## 965                Mauritania 1972    1332786 48.43700   1586.8518
## 966                Mauritania 1977    1456688 50.85200   1497.4922
## 967                Mauritania 1982    1622136 53.59900   1481.1502
## 968                Mauritania 1987    1841240 56.14500   1421.6036
## 969                Mauritania 1992    2119465 58.33300   1361.3698
## 970                Mauritania 1997    2444741 60.43000   1483.1361
## 971                Mauritania 2002    2828858 62.24700   1579.0195
## 972                Mauritania 2007    3270065 64.16400   1803.1515
## 973                 Mauritius 1952     516556 50.98600   1967.9557
## 974                 Mauritius 1957     609816 58.08900   2034.0380
## 975                 Mauritius 1962     701016 60.24600   2529.0675
## 976                 Mauritius 1967     789309 61.55700   2475.3876
## 977                 Mauritius 1972     851334 62.94400   2575.4842
## 978                 Mauritius 1977     913025 64.93000   3710.9830
## 979                 Mauritius 1982     992040 66.71100   3688.0377
## 980                 Mauritius 1987    1042663 68.74000   4783.5869
## 981                 Mauritius 1992    1096202 69.74500   6058.2538
## 982                 Mauritius 1997    1149818 70.73600   7425.7053
## 983                 Mauritius 2002    1200206 71.95400   9021.8159
## 984                 Mauritius 2007    1250882 72.80100  10956.9911
## 985                    Mexico 1952   30144317 50.78900   3478.1255
## 986                    Mexico 1957   35015548 55.19000   4131.5466
## 987                    Mexico 1962   41121485 58.29900   4581.6094
## 988                    Mexico 1967   47995559 60.11000   5754.7339
## 989                    Mexico 1972   55984294 62.36100   6809.4067
## 990                    Mexico 1977   63759976 65.03200   7674.9291
## 991                    Mexico 1982   71640904 67.40500   9611.1475
## 992                    Mexico 1987   80122492 69.49800   8688.1560
## 993                    Mexico 1992   88111030 71.45500   9472.3843
## 994                    Mexico 1997   95895146 73.67000   9767.2975
## 995                    Mexico 2002  102479927 74.90200  10742.4405
## 996                    Mexico 2007  108700891 76.19500  11977.5750
## 997                  Mongolia 1952     800663 42.24400    786.5669
## 998                  Mongolia 1957     882134 45.24800    912.6626
## 999                  Mongolia 1962    1010280 48.25100   1056.3540
## 1000                 Mongolia 1967    1149500 51.25300   1226.0411
## 1001                 Mongolia 1972    1320500 53.75400   1421.7420
## 1002                 Mongolia 1977    1528000 55.49100   1647.5117
## 1003                 Mongolia 1982    1756032 57.48900   2000.6031
## 1004                 Mongolia 1987    2015133 60.22200   2338.0083
## 1005                 Mongolia 1992    2312802 61.27100   1785.4020
## 1006                 Mongolia 1997    2494803 63.62500   1902.2521
## 1007                 Mongolia 2002    2674234 65.03300   2140.7393
## 1008                 Mongolia 2007    2874127 66.80300   3095.7723
## 1009               Montenegro 1952     413834 59.16400   2647.5856
## 1010               Montenegro 1957     442829 61.44800   3682.2599
## 1011               Montenegro 1962     474528 63.72800   4649.5938
## 1012               Montenegro 1967     501035 67.17800   5907.8509
## 1013               Montenegro 1972     527678 70.63600   7778.4140
## 1014               Montenegro 1977     560073 73.06600   9595.9299
## 1015               Montenegro 1982     562548 74.10100  11222.5876
## 1016               Montenegro 1987     569473 74.86500  11732.5102
## 1017               Montenegro 1992     621621 75.43500   7003.3390
## 1018               Montenegro 1997     692651 75.44500   6465.6133
## 1019               Montenegro 2002     720230 73.98100   6557.1943
## 1020               Montenegro 2007     684736 74.54300   9253.8961
## 1021                  Morocco 1952    9939217 42.87300   1688.2036
## 1022                  Morocco 1957   11406350 45.42300   1642.0023
## 1023                  Morocco 1962   13056604 47.92400   1566.3535
## 1024                  Morocco 1967   14770296 50.33500   1711.0448
## 1025                  Morocco 1972   16660670 52.86200   1930.1950
## 1026                  Morocco 1977   18396941 55.73000   2370.6200
## 1027                  Morocco 1982   20198730 59.65000   2702.6204
## 1028                  Morocco 1987   22987397 62.67700   2755.0470
## 1029                  Morocco 1992   25798239 65.39300   2948.0473
## 1030                  Morocco 1997   28529501 67.66000   2982.1019
## 1031                  Morocco 2002   31167783 69.61500   3258.4956
## 1032                  Morocco 2007   33757175 71.16400   3820.1752
## 1033               Mozambique 1952    6446316 31.28600    468.5260
## 1034               Mozambique 1957    7038035 33.77900    495.5868
## 1035               Mozambique 1962    7788944 36.16100    556.6864
## 1036               Mozambique 1967    8680909 38.11300    566.6692
## 1037               Mozambique 1972    9809596 40.32800    724.9178
## 1038               Mozambique 1977   11127868 42.49500    502.3197
## 1039               Mozambique 1982   12587223 42.79500    462.2114
## 1040               Mozambique 1987   12891952 42.86100    389.8762
## 1041               Mozambique 1992   13160731 44.28400    410.8968
## 1042               Mozambique 1997   16603334 46.34400    472.3461
## 1043               Mozambique 2002   18473780 44.02600    633.6179
## 1044               Mozambique 2007   19951656 42.08200    823.6856
## 1045                  Myanmar 1952   20092996 36.31900    331.0000
## 1046                  Myanmar 1957   21731844 41.90500    350.0000
## 1047                  Myanmar 1962   23634436 45.10800    388.0000
## 1048                  Myanmar 1967   25870271 49.37900    349.0000
## 1049                  Myanmar 1972   28466390 53.07000    357.0000
## 1050                  Myanmar 1977   31528087 56.05900    371.0000
## 1051                  Myanmar 1982   34680442 58.05600    424.0000
## 1052                  Myanmar 1987   38028578 58.33900    385.0000
## 1053                  Myanmar 1992   40546538 59.32000    347.0000
## 1054                  Myanmar 1997   43247867 60.32800    415.0000
## 1055                  Myanmar 2002   45598081 59.90800    611.0000
## 1056                  Myanmar 2007   47761980 62.06900    944.0000
## 1057                  Namibia 1952     485831 41.72500   2423.7804
## 1058                  Namibia 1957     548080 45.22600   2621.4481
## 1059                  Namibia 1962     621392 48.38600   3173.2156
## 1060                  Namibia 1967     706640 51.15900   3793.6948
## 1061                  Namibia 1972     821782 53.86700   3746.0809
## 1062                  Namibia 1977     977026 56.43700   3876.4860
## 1063                  Namibia 1982    1099010 58.96800   4191.1005
## 1064                  Namibia 1987    1278184 60.83500   3693.7313
## 1065                  Namibia 1992    1554253 61.99900   3804.5380
## 1066                  Namibia 1997    1774766 58.90900   3899.5243
## 1067                  Namibia 2002    1972153 51.47900   4072.3248
## 1068                  Namibia 2007    2055080 52.90600   4811.0604
## 1069                    Nepal 1952    9182536 36.15700    545.8657
## 1070                    Nepal 1957    9682338 37.68600    597.9364
## 1071                    Nepal 1962   10332057 39.39300    652.3969
## 1072                    Nepal 1967   11261690 41.47200    676.4422
## 1073                    Nepal 1972   12412593 43.97100    674.7881
## 1074                    Nepal 1977   13933198 46.74800    694.1124
## 1075                    Nepal 1982   15796314 49.59400    718.3731
## 1076                    Nepal 1987   17917180 52.53700    775.6325
## 1077                    Nepal 1992   20326209 55.72700    897.7404
## 1078                    Nepal 1997   23001113 59.42600   1010.8921
## 1079                    Nepal 2002   25873917 61.34000   1057.2063
## 1080                    Nepal 2007   28901790 63.78500   1091.3598
## 1081              Netherlands 1952   10381988 72.13000   8941.5719
## 1082              Netherlands 1957   11026383 72.99000  11276.1934
## 1083              Netherlands 1962   11805689 73.23000  12790.8496
## 1084              Netherlands 1967   12596822 73.82000  15363.2514
## 1085              Netherlands 1972   13329874 73.75000  18794.7457
## 1086              Netherlands 1977   13852989 75.24000  21209.0592
## 1087              Netherlands 1982   14310401 76.05000  21399.4605
## 1088              Netherlands 1987   14665278 76.83000  23651.3236
## 1089              Netherlands 1992   15174244 77.42000  26790.9496
## 1090              Netherlands 1997   15604464 78.03000  30246.1306
## 1091              Netherlands 2002   16122830 78.53000  33724.7578
## 1092              Netherlands 2007   16570613 79.76200  36797.9333
## 1093              New Zealand 1952    1994794 69.39000  10556.5757
## 1094              New Zealand 1957    2229407 70.26000  12247.3953
## 1095              New Zealand 1962    2488550 71.24000  13175.6780
## 1096              New Zealand 1967    2728150 71.52000  14463.9189
## 1097              New Zealand 1972    2929100 71.89000  16046.0373
## 1098              New Zealand 1977    3164900 72.22000  16233.7177
## 1099              New Zealand 1982    3210650 73.84000  17632.4104
## 1100              New Zealand 1987    3317166 74.32000  19007.1913
## 1101              New Zealand 1992    3437674 76.33000  18363.3249
## 1102              New Zealand 1997    3676187 77.55000  21050.4138
## 1103              New Zealand 2002    3908037 79.11000  23189.8014
## 1104              New Zealand 2007    4115771 80.20400  25185.0091
## 1105                Nicaragua 1952    1165790 42.31400   3112.3639
## 1106                Nicaragua 1957    1358828 45.43200   3457.4159
## 1107                Nicaragua 1962    1590597 48.63200   3634.3644
## 1108                Nicaragua 1967    1865490 51.88400   4643.3935
## 1109                Nicaragua 1972    2182908 55.15100   4688.5933
## 1110                Nicaragua 1977    2554598 57.47000   5486.3711
## 1111                Nicaragua 1982    2979423 59.29800   3470.3382
## 1112                Nicaragua 1987    3344353 62.00800   2955.9844
## 1113                Nicaragua 1992    4017939 65.84300   2170.1517
## 1114                Nicaragua 1997    4609572 68.42600   2253.0230
## 1115                Nicaragua 2002    5146848 70.83600   2474.5488
## 1116                Nicaragua 2007    5675356 72.89900   2749.3210
## 1117                    Niger 1952    3379468 37.44400    761.8794
## 1118                    Niger 1957    3692184 38.59800    835.5234
## 1119                    Niger 1962    4076008 39.48700    997.7661
## 1120                    Niger 1967    4534062 40.11800   1054.3849
## 1121                    Niger 1972    5060262 40.54600    954.2092
## 1122                    Niger 1977    5682086 41.29100    808.8971
## 1123                    Niger 1982    6437188 42.59800    909.7221
## 1124                    Niger 1987    7332638 44.55500    668.3000
## 1125                    Niger 1992    8392818 47.39100    581.1827
## 1126                    Niger 1997    9666252 51.31300    580.3052
## 1127                    Niger 2002   11140655 54.49600    601.0745
## 1128                    Niger 2007   12894865 56.86700    619.6769
## 1129                  Nigeria 1952   33119096 36.32400   1077.2819
## 1130                  Nigeria 1957   37173340 37.80200   1100.5926
## 1131                  Nigeria 1962   41871351 39.36000   1150.9275
## 1132                  Nigeria 1967   47287752 41.04000   1014.5141
## 1133                  Nigeria 1972   53740085 42.82100   1698.3888
## 1134                  Nigeria 1977   62209173 44.51400   1981.9518
## 1135                  Nigeria 1982   73039376 45.82600   1576.9738
## 1136                  Nigeria 1987   81551520 46.88600   1385.0296
## 1137                  Nigeria 1992   93364244 47.47200   1619.8482
## 1138                  Nigeria 1997  106207839 47.46400   1624.9413
## 1139                  Nigeria 2002  119901274 46.60800   1615.2864
## 1140                  Nigeria 2007  135031164 46.85900   2013.9773
## 1141                   Norway 1952    3327728 72.67000  10095.4217
## 1142                   Norway 1957    3491938 73.44000  11653.9730
## 1143                   Norway 1962    3638919 73.47000  13450.4015
## 1144                   Norway 1967    3786019 74.08000  16361.8765
## 1145                   Norway 1972    3933004 74.34000  18965.0555
## 1146                   Norway 1977    4043205 75.37000  23311.3494
## 1147                   Norway 1982    4114787 75.97000  26298.6353
## 1148                   Norway 1987    4186147 75.89000  31540.9748
## 1149                   Norway 1992    4286357 77.32000  33965.6611
## 1150                   Norway 1997    4405672 78.32000  41283.1643
## 1151                   Norway 2002    4535591 79.05000  44683.9753
## 1152                   Norway 2007    4627926 80.19600  49357.1902
## 1153                     Oman 1952     507833 37.57800   1828.2303
## 1154                     Oman 1957     561977 40.08000   2242.7466
## 1155                     Oman 1962     628164 43.16500   2924.6381
## 1156                     Oman 1967     714775 46.98800   4720.9427
## 1157                     Oman 1972     829050 52.14300  10618.0385
## 1158                     Oman 1977    1004533 57.36700  11848.3439
## 1159                     Oman 1982    1301048 62.72800  12954.7910
## 1160                     Oman 1987    1593882 67.73400  18115.2231
## 1161                     Oman 1992    1915208 71.19700  18616.7069
## 1162                     Oman 1997    2283635 72.49900  19702.0558
## 1163                     Oman 2002    2713462 74.19300  19774.8369
## 1164                     Oman 2007    3204897 75.64000  22316.1929
## 1165                 Pakistan 1952   41346560 43.43600    684.5971
## 1166                 Pakistan 1957   46679944 45.55700    747.0835
## 1167                 Pakistan 1962   53100671 47.67000    803.3427
## 1168                 Pakistan 1967   60641899 49.80000    942.4083
## 1169                 Pakistan 1972   69325921 51.92900   1049.9390
## 1170                 Pakistan 1977   78152686 54.04300   1175.9212
## 1171                 Pakistan 1982   91462088 56.15800   1443.4298
## 1172                 Pakistan 1987  105186881 58.24500   1704.6866
## 1173                 Pakistan 1992  120065004 60.83800   1971.8295
## 1174                 Pakistan 1997  135564834 61.81800   2049.3505
## 1175                 Pakistan 2002  153403524 63.61000   2092.7124
## 1176                 Pakistan 2007  169270617 65.48300   2605.9476
## 1177                   Panama 1952     940080 55.19100   2480.3803
## 1178                   Panama 1957    1063506 59.20100   2961.8009
## 1179                   Panama 1962    1215725 61.81700   3536.5403
## 1180                   Panama 1967    1405486 64.07100   4421.0091
## 1181                   Panama 1972    1616384 66.21600   5364.2497
## 1182                   Panama 1977    1839782 68.68100   5351.9121
## 1183                   Panama 1982    2036305 70.47200   7009.6016
## 1184                   Panama 1987    2253639 71.52300   7034.7792
## 1185                   Panama 1992    2484997 72.46200   6618.7431
## 1186                   Panama 1997    2734531 73.73800   7113.6923
## 1187                   Panama 2002    2990875 74.71200   7356.0319
## 1188                   Panama 2007    3242173 75.53700   9809.1856
## 1189                 Paraguay 1952    1555876 62.64900   1952.3087
## 1190                 Paraguay 1957    1770902 63.19600   2046.1547
## 1191                 Paraguay 1962    2009813 64.36100   2148.0271
## 1192                 Paraguay 1967    2287985 64.95100   2299.3763
## 1193                 Paraguay 1972    2614104 65.81500   2523.3380
## 1194                 Paraguay 1977    2984494 66.35300   3248.3733
## 1195                 Paraguay 1982    3366439 66.87400   4258.5036
## 1196                 Paraguay 1987    3886512 67.37800   3998.8757
## 1197                 Paraguay 1992    4483945 68.22500   4196.4111
## 1198                 Paraguay 1997    5154123 69.40000   4247.4003
## 1199                 Paraguay 2002    5884491 70.75500   3783.6742
## 1200                 Paraguay 2007    6667147 71.75200   4172.8385
## 1201                     Peru 1952    8025700 43.90200   3758.5234
## 1202                     Peru 1957    9146100 46.26300   4245.2567
## 1203                     Peru 1962   10516500 49.09600   4957.0380
## 1204                     Peru 1967   12132200 51.44500   5788.0933
## 1205                     Peru 1972   13954700 55.44800   5937.8273
## 1206                     Peru 1977   15990099 58.44700   6281.2909
## 1207                     Peru 1982   18125129 61.40600   6434.5018
## 1208                     Peru 1987   20195924 64.13400   6360.9434
## 1209                     Peru 1992   22430449 66.45800   4446.3809
## 1210                     Peru 1997   24748122 68.38600   5838.3477
## 1211                     Peru 2002   26769436 69.90600   5909.0201
## 1212                     Peru 2007   28674757 71.42100   7408.9056
## 1213              Philippines 1952   22438691 47.75200   1272.8810
## 1214              Philippines 1957   26072194 51.33400   1547.9448
## 1215              Philippines 1962   30325264 54.75700   1649.5522
## 1216              Philippines 1967   35356600 56.39300   1814.1274
## 1217              Philippines 1972   40850141 58.06500   1989.3741
## 1218              Philippines 1977   46850962 60.06000   2373.2043
## 1219              Philippines 1982   53456774 62.08200   2603.2738
## 1220              Philippines 1987   60017788 64.15100   2189.6350
## 1221              Philippines 1992   67185766 66.45800   2279.3240
## 1222              Philippines 1997   75012988 68.56400   2536.5349
## 1223              Philippines 2002   82995088 70.30300   2650.9211
## 1224              Philippines 2007   91077287 71.68800   3190.4810
## 1225                   Poland 1952   25730551 61.31000   4029.3297
## 1226                   Poland 1957   28235346 65.77000   4734.2530
## 1227                   Poland 1962   30329617 67.64000   5338.7521
## 1228                   Poland 1967   31785378 69.61000   6557.1528
## 1229                   Poland 1972   33039545 70.85000   8006.5070
## 1230                   Poland 1977   34621254 70.67000   9508.1415
## 1231                   Poland 1982   36227381 71.32000   8451.5310
## 1232                   Poland 1987   37740710 70.98000   9082.3512
## 1233                   Poland 1992   38370697 70.99000   7738.8812
## 1234                   Poland 1997   38654957 72.75000  10159.5837
## 1235                   Poland 2002   38625976 74.67000  12002.2391
## 1236                   Poland 2007   38518241 75.56300  15389.9247
## 1237                 Portugal 1952    8526050 59.82000   3068.3199
## 1238                 Portugal 1957    8817650 61.51000   3774.5717
## 1239                 Portugal 1962    9019800 64.39000   4727.9549
## 1240                 Portugal 1967    9103000 66.60000   6361.5180
## 1241                 Portugal 1972    8970450 69.26000   9022.2474
## 1242                 Portugal 1977    9662600 70.41000  10172.4857
## 1243                 Portugal 1982    9859650 72.77000  11753.8429
## 1244                 Portugal 1987    9915289 74.06000  13039.3088
## 1245                 Portugal 1992    9927680 74.86000  16207.2666
## 1246                 Portugal 1997   10156415 75.97000  17641.0316
## 1247                 Portugal 2002   10433867 77.29000  19970.9079
## 1248                 Portugal 2007   10642836 78.09800  20509.6478
## 1249              Puerto Rico 1952    2227000 64.28000   3081.9598
## 1250              Puerto Rico 1957    2260000 68.54000   3907.1562
## 1251              Puerto Rico 1962    2448046 69.62000   5108.3446
## 1252              Puerto Rico 1967    2648961 71.10000   6929.2777
## 1253              Puerto Rico 1972    2847132 72.16000   9123.0417
## 1254              Puerto Rico 1977    3080828 73.44000   9770.5249
## 1255              Puerto Rico 1982    3279001 73.75000  10330.9891
## 1256              Puerto Rico 1987    3444468 74.63000  12281.3419
## 1257              Puerto Rico 1992    3585176 73.91100  14641.5871
## 1258              Puerto Rico 1997    3759430 74.91700  16999.4333
## 1259              Puerto Rico 2002    3859606 77.77800  18855.6062
## 1260              Puerto Rico 2007    3942491 78.74600  19328.7090
## 1261                  Reunion 1952     257700 52.72400   2718.8853
## 1262                  Reunion 1957     308700 55.09000   2769.4518
## 1263                  Reunion 1962     358900 57.66600   3173.7233
## 1264                  Reunion 1967     414024 60.54200   4021.1757
## 1265                  Reunion 1972     461633 64.27400   5047.6586
## 1266                  Reunion 1977     492095 67.06400   4319.8041
## 1267                  Reunion 1982     517810 69.88500   5267.2194
## 1268                  Reunion 1987     562035 71.91300   5303.3775
## 1269                  Reunion 1992     622191 73.61500   6101.2558
## 1270                  Reunion 1997     684810 74.77200   6071.9414
## 1271                  Reunion 2002     743981 75.74400   6316.1652
## 1272                  Reunion 2007     798094 76.44200   7670.1226
## 1273                  Romania 1952   16630000 61.05000   3144.6132
## 1274                  Romania 1957   17829327 64.10000   3943.3702
## 1275                  Romania 1962   18680721 66.80000   4734.9976
## 1276                  Romania 1967   19284814 66.80000   6470.8665
## 1277                  Romania 1972   20662648 69.21000   8011.4144
## 1278                  Romania 1977   21658597 69.46000   9356.3972
## 1279                  Romania 1982   22356726 69.66000   9605.3141
## 1280                  Romania 1987   22686371 69.53000   9696.2733
## 1281                  Romania 1992   22797027 69.36000   6598.4099
## 1282                  Romania 1997   22562458 69.72000   7346.5476
## 1283                  Romania 2002   22404337 71.32200   7885.3601
## 1284                  Romania 2007   22276056 72.47600  10808.4756
## 1285                   Rwanda 1952    2534927 40.00000    493.3239
## 1286                   Rwanda 1957    2822082 41.50000    540.2894
## 1287                   Rwanda 1962    3051242 43.00000    597.4731
## 1288                   Rwanda 1967    3451079 44.10000    510.9637
## 1289                   Rwanda 1972    3992121 44.60000    590.5807
## 1290                   Rwanda 1977    4657072 45.00000    670.0806
## 1291                   Rwanda 1982    5507565 46.21800    881.5706
## 1292                   Rwanda 1987    6349365 44.02000    847.9912
## 1293                   Rwanda 1992    7290203 23.59900    737.0686
## 1294                   Rwanda 1997    7212583 36.08700    589.9445
## 1295                   Rwanda 2002    7852401 43.41300    785.6538
## 1296                   Rwanda 2007    8860588 46.24200    863.0885
## 1297    Sao Tome and Principe 1952      60011 46.47100    879.5836
## 1298    Sao Tome and Principe 1957      61325 48.94500    860.7369
## 1299    Sao Tome and Principe 1962      65345 51.89300   1071.5511
## 1300    Sao Tome and Principe 1967      70787 54.42500   1384.8406
## 1301    Sao Tome and Principe 1972      76595 56.48000   1532.9853
## 1302    Sao Tome and Principe 1977      86796 58.55000   1737.5617
## 1303    Sao Tome and Principe 1982      98593 60.35100   1890.2181
## 1304    Sao Tome and Principe 1987     110812 61.72800   1516.5255
## 1305    Sao Tome and Principe 1992     125911 62.74200   1428.7778
## 1306    Sao Tome and Principe 1997     145608 63.30600   1339.0760
## 1307    Sao Tome and Principe 2002     170372 64.33700   1353.0924
## 1308    Sao Tome and Principe 2007     199579 65.52800   1598.4351
## 1309             Saudi Arabia 1952    4005677 39.87500   6459.5548
## 1310             Saudi Arabia 1957    4419650 42.86800   8157.5912
## 1311             Saudi Arabia 1962    4943029 45.91400  11626.4197
## 1312             Saudi Arabia 1967    5618198 49.90100  16903.0489
## 1313             Saudi Arabia 1972    6472756 53.88600  24837.4287
## 1314             Saudi Arabia 1977    8128505 58.69000  34167.7626
## 1315             Saudi Arabia 1982   11254672 63.01200  33693.1753
## 1316             Saudi Arabia 1987   14619745 66.29500  21198.2614
## 1317             Saudi Arabia 1992   16945857 68.76800  24841.6178
## 1318             Saudi Arabia 1997   21229759 70.53300  20586.6902
## 1319             Saudi Arabia 2002   24501530 71.62600  19014.5412
## 1320             Saudi Arabia 2007   27601038 72.77700  21654.8319
## 1321                  Senegal 1952    2755589 37.27800   1450.3570
## 1322                  Senegal 1957    3054547 39.32900   1567.6530
## 1323                  Senegal 1962    3430243 41.45400   1654.9887
## 1324                  Senegal 1967    3965841 43.56300   1612.4046
## 1325                  Senegal 1972    4588696 45.81500   1597.7121
## 1326                  Senegal 1977    5260855 48.87900   1561.7691
## 1327                  Senegal 1982    6147783 52.37900   1518.4800
## 1328                  Senegal 1987    7171347 55.76900   1441.7207
## 1329                  Senegal 1992    8307920 58.19600   1367.8994
## 1330                  Senegal 1997    9535314 60.18700   1392.3683
## 1331                  Senegal 2002   10870037 61.60000   1519.6353
## 1332                  Senegal 2007   12267493 63.06200   1712.4721
## 1333                   Serbia 1952    6860147 57.99600   3581.4594
## 1334                   Serbia 1957    7271135 61.68500   4981.0909
## 1335                   Serbia 1962    7616060 64.53100   6289.6292
## 1336                   Serbia 1967    7971222 66.91400   7991.7071
## 1337                   Serbia 1972    8313288 68.70000  10522.0675
## 1338                   Serbia 1977    8686367 70.30000  12980.6696
## 1339                   Serbia 1982    9032824 70.16200  15181.0927
## 1340                   Serbia 1987    9230783 71.21800  15870.8785
## 1341                   Serbia 1992    9826397 71.65900   9325.0682
## 1342                   Serbia 1997   10336594 72.23200   7914.3203
## 1343                   Serbia 2002   10111559 73.21300   7236.0753
## 1344                   Serbia 2007   10150265 74.00200   9786.5347
## 1345             Sierra Leone 1952    2143249 30.33100    879.7877
## 1346             Sierra Leone 1957    2295678 31.57000   1004.4844
## 1347             Sierra Leone 1962    2467895 32.76700   1116.6399
## 1348             Sierra Leone 1967    2662190 34.11300   1206.0435
## 1349             Sierra Leone 1972    2879013 35.40000   1353.7598
## 1350             Sierra Leone 1977    3140897 36.78800   1348.2852
## 1351             Sierra Leone 1982    3464522 38.44500   1465.0108
## 1352             Sierra Leone 1987    3868905 40.00600   1294.4478
## 1353             Sierra Leone 1992    4260884 38.33300   1068.6963
## 1354             Sierra Leone 1997    4578212 39.89700    574.6482
## 1355             Sierra Leone 2002    5359092 41.01200    699.4897
## 1356             Sierra Leone 2007    6144562 42.56800    862.5408
## 1357                Singapore 1952    1127000 60.39600   2315.1382
## 1358                Singapore 1957    1445929 63.17900   2843.1044
## 1359                Singapore 1962    1750200 65.79800   3674.7356
## 1360                Singapore 1967    1977600 67.94600   4977.4185
## 1361                Singapore 1972    2152400 69.52100   8597.7562
## 1362                Singapore 1977    2325300 70.79500  11210.0895
## 1363                Singapore 1982    2651869 71.76000  15169.1611
## 1364                Singapore 1987    2794552 73.56000  18861.5308
## 1365                Singapore 1992    3235865 75.78800  24769.8912
## 1366                Singapore 1997    3802309 77.15800  33519.4766
## 1367                Singapore 2002    4197776 78.77000  36023.1054
## 1368                Singapore 2007    4553009 79.97200  47143.1796
## 1369          Slovak Republic 1952    3558137 64.36000   5074.6591
## 1370          Slovak Republic 1957    3844277 67.45000   6093.2630
## 1371          Slovak Republic 1962    4237384 70.33000   7481.1076
## 1372          Slovak Republic 1967    4442238 70.98000   8412.9024
## 1373          Slovak Republic 1972    4593433 70.35000   9674.1676
## 1374          Slovak Republic 1977    4827803 70.45000  10922.6640
## 1375          Slovak Republic 1982    5048043 70.80000  11348.5459
## 1376          Slovak Republic 1987    5199318 71.08000  12037.2676
## 1377          Slovak Republic 1992    5302888 71.38000   9498.4677
## 1378          Slovak Republic 1997    5383010 72.71000  12126.2306
## 1379          Slovak Republic 2002    5410052 73.80000  13638.7784
## 1380          Slovak Republic 2007    5447502 74.66300  18678.3144
## 1381                 Slovenia 1952    1489518 65.57000   4215.0417
## 1382                 Slovenia 1957    1533070 67.85000   5862.2766
## 1383                 Slovenia 1962    1582962 69.15000   7402.3034
## 1384                 Slovenia 1967    1646912 69.18000   9405.4894
## 1385                 Slovenia 1972    1694510 69.82000  12383.4862
## 1386                 Slovenia 1977    1746919 70.97000  15277.0302
## 1387                 Slovenia 1982    1861252 71.06300  17866.7218
## 1388                 Slovenia 1987    1945870 72.25000  18678.5349
## 1389                 Slovenia 1992    1999210 73.64000  14214.7168
## 1390                 Slovenia 1997    2011612 75.13000  17161.1073
## 1391                 Slovenia 2002    2011497 76.66000  20660.0194
## 1392                 Slovenia 2007    2009245 77.92600  25768.2576
## 1393                  Somalia 1952    2526994 32.97800   1135.7498
## 1394                  Somalia 1957    2780415 34.97700   1258.1474
## 1395                  Somalia 1962    3080153 36.98100   1369.4883
## 1396                  Somalia 1967    3428839 38.97700   1284.7332
## 1397                  Somalia 1972    3840161 40.97300   1254.5761
## 1398                  Somalia 1977    4353666 41.97400   1450.9925
## 1399                  Somalia 1982    5828892 42.95500   1176.8070
## 1400                  Somalia 1987    6921858 44.50100   1093.2450
## 1401                  Somalia 1992    6099799 39.65800    926.9603
## 1402                  Somalia 1997    6633514 43.79500    930.5964
## 1403                  Somalia 2002    7753310 45.93600    882.0818
## 1404                  Somalia 2007    9118773 48.15900    926.1411
## 1405             South Africa 1952   14264935 45.00900   4725.2955
## 1406             South Africa 1957   16151549 47.98500   5487.1042
## 1407             South Africa 1962   18356657 49.95100   5768.7297
## 1408             South Africa 1967   20997321 51.92700   7114.4780
## 1409             South Africa 1972   23935810 53.69600   7765.9626
## 1410             South Africa 1977   27129932 55.52700   8028.6514
## 1411             South Africa 1982   31140029 58.16100   8568.2662
## 1412             South Africa 1987   35933379 60.83400   7825.8234
## 1413             South Africa 1992   39964159 61.88800   7225.0693
## 1414             South Africa 1997   42835005 60.23600   7479.1882
## 1415             South Africa 2002   44433622 53.36500   7710.9464
## 1416             South Africa 2007   43997828 49.33900   9269.6578
## 1417                    Spain 1952   28549870 64.94000   3834.0347
## 1418                    Spain 1957   29841614 66.66000   4564.8024
## 1419                    Spain 1962   31158061 69.69000   5693.8439
## 1420                    Spain 1967   32850275 71.44000   7993.5123
## 1421                    Spain 1972   34513161 73.06000  10638.7513
## 1422                    Spain 1977   36439000 74.39000  13236.9212
## 1423                    Spain 1982   37983310 76.30000  13926.1700
## 1424                    Spain 1987   38880702 76.90000  15764.9831
## 1425                    Spain 1992   39549438 77.57000  18603.0645
## 1426                    Spain 1997   39855442 78.77000  20445.2990
## 1427                    Spain 2002   40152517 79.78000  24835.4717
## 1428                    Spain 2007   40448191 80.94100  28821.0637
## 1429                Sri Lanka 1952    7982342 57.59300   1083.5320
## 1430                Sri Lanka 1957    9128546 61.45600   1072.5466
## 1431                Sri Lanka 1962   10421936 62.19200   1074.4720
## 1432                Sri Lanka 1967   11737396 64.26600   1135.5143
## 1433                Sri Lanka 1972   13016733 65.04200   1213.3955
## 1434                Sri Lanka 1977   14116836 65.94900   1348.7757
## 1435                Sri Lanka 1982   15410151 68.75700   1648.0798
## 1436                Sri Lanka 1987   16495304 69.01100   1876.7668
## 1437                Sri Lanka 1992   17587060 70.37900   2153.7392
## 1438                Sri Lanka 1997   18698655 70.45700   2664.4773
## 1439                Sri Lanka 2002   19576783 70.81500   3015.3788
## 1440                Sri Lanka 2007   20378239 72.39600   3970.0954
## 1441                    Sudan 1952    8504667 38.63500   1615.9911
## 1442                    Sudan 1957    9753392 39.62400   1770.3371
## 1443                    Sudan 1962   11183227 40.87000   1959.5938
## 1444                    Sudan 1967   12716129 42.85800   1687.9976
## 1445                    Sudan 1972   14597019 45.08300   1659.6528
## 1446                    Sudan 1977   17104986 47.80000   2202.9884
## 1447                    Sudan 1982   20367053 50.33800   1895.5441
## 1448                    Sudan 1987   24725960 51.74400   1507.8192
## 1449                    Sudan 1992   28227588 53.55600   1492.1970
## 1450                    Sudan 1997   32160729 55.37300   1632.2108
## 1451                    Sudan 2002   37090298 56.36900   1993.3983
## 1452                    Sudan 2007   42292929 58.55600   2602.3950
## 1453                Swaziland 1952     290243 41.40700   1148.3766
## 1454                Swaziland 1957     326741 43.42400   1244.7084
## 1455                Swaziland 1962     370006 44.99200   1856.1821
## 1456                Swaziland 1967     420690 46.63300   2613.1017
## 1457                Swaziland 1972     480105 49.55200   3364.8366
## 1458                Swaziland 1977     551425 52.53700   3781.4106
## 1459                Swaziland 1982     649901 55.56100   3895.3840
## 1460                Swaziland 1987     779348 57.67800   3984.8398
## 1461                Swaziland 1992     962344 58.47400   3553.0224
## 1462                Swaziland 1997    1054486 54.28900   3876.7685
## 1463                Swaziland 2002    1130269 43.86900   4128.1169
## 1464                Swaziland 2007    1133066 39.61300   4513.4806
## 1465                   Sweden 1952    7124673 71.86000   8527.8447
## 1466                   Sweden 1957    7363802 72.49000   9911.8782
## 1467                   Sweden 1962    7561588 73.37000  12329.4419
## 1468                   Sweden 1967    7867931 74.16000  15258.2970
## 1469                   Sweden 1972    8122293 74.72000  17832.0246
## 1470                   Sweden 1977    8251648 75.44000  18855.7252
## 1471                   Sweden 1982    8325260 76.42000  20667.3812
## 1472                   Sweden 1987    8421403 77.19000  23586.9293
## 1473                   Sweden 1992    8718867 78.16000  23880.0168
## 1474                   Sweden 1997    8897619 79.39000  25266.5950
## 1475                   Sweden 2002    8954175 80.04000  29341.6309
## 1476                   Sweden 2007    9031088 80.88400  33859.7484
## 1477              Switzerland 1952    4815000 69.62000  14734.2327
## 1478              Switzerland 1957    5126000 70.56000  17909.4897
## 1479              Switzerland 1962    5666000 71.32000  20431.0927
## 1480              Switzerland 1967    6063000 72.77000  22966.1443
## 1481              Switzerland 1972    6401400 73.78000  27195.1130
## 1482              Switzerland 1977    6316424 75.39000  26982.2905
## 1483              Switzerland 1982    6468126 76.21000  28397.7151
## 1484              Switzerland 1987    6649942 77.41000  30281.7046
## 1485              Switzerland 1992    6995447 78.03000  31871.5303
## 1486              Switzerland 1997    7193761 79.37000  32135.3230
## 1487              Switzerland 2002    7361757 80.62000  34480.9577
## 1488              Switzerland 2007    7554661 81.70100  37506.4191
## 1489                    Syria 1952    3661549 45.88300   1643.4854
## 1490                    Syria 1957    4149908 48.28400   2117.2349
## 1491                    Syria 1962    4834621 50.30500   2193.0371
## 1492                    Syria 1967    5680812 53.65500   1881.9236
## 1493                    Syria 1972    6701172 57.29600   2571.4230
## 1494                    Syria 1977    7932503 61.19500   3195.4846
## 1495                    Syria 1982    9410494 64.59000   3761.8377
## 1496                    Syria 1987   11242847 66.97400   3116.7743
## 1497                    Syria 1992   13219062 69.24900   3340.5428
## 1498                    Syria 1997   15081016 71.52700   4014.2390
## 1499                    Syria 2002   17155814 73.05300   4090.9253
## 1500                    Syria 2007   19314747 74.14300   4184.5481
## 1501                   Taiwan 1952    8550362 58.50000   1206.9479
## 1502                   Taiwan 1957   10164215 62.40000   1507.8613
## 1503                   Taiwan 1962   11918938 65.20000   1822.8790
## 1504                   Taiwan 1967   13648692 67.50000   2643.8587
## 1505                   Taiwan 1972   15226039 69.39000   4062.5239
## 1506                   Taiwan 1977   16785196 70.59000   5596.5198
## 1507                   Taiwan 1982   18501390 72.16000   7426.3548
## 1508                   Taiwan 1987   19757799 73.40000  11054.5618
## 1509                   Taiwan 1992   20686918 74.26000  15215.6579
## 1510                   Taiwan 1997   21628605 75.25000  20206.8210
## 1511                   Taiwan 2002   22454239 76.99000  23235.4233
## 1512                   Taiwan 2007   23174294 78.40000  28718.2768
## 1513                 Tanzania 1952    8322925 41.21500    716.6501
## 1514                 Tanzania 1957    9452826 42.97400    698.5356
## 1515                 Tanzania 1962   10863958 44.24600    722.0038
## 1516                 Tanzania 1967   12607312 45.75700    848.2187
## 1517                 Tanzania 1972   14706593 47.62000    915.9851
## 1518                 Tanzania 1977   17129565 49.91900    962.4923
## 1519                 Tanzania 1982   19844382 50.60800    874.2426
## 1520                 Tanzania 1987   23040630 51.53500    831.8221
## 1521                 Tanzania 1992   26605473 50.44000    825.6825
## 1522                 Tanzania 1997   30686889 48.46600    789.1862
## 1523                 Tanzania 2002   34593779 49.65100    899.0742
## 1524                 Tanzania 2007   38139640 52.51700   1107.4822
## 1525                 Thailand 1952   21289402 50.84800    757.7974
## 1526                 Thailand 1957   25041917 53.63000    793.5774
## 1527                 Thailand 1962   29263397 56.06100   1002.1992
## 1528                 Thailand 1967   34024249 58.28500   1295.4607
## 1529                 Thailand 1972   39276153 60.40500   1524.3589
## 1530                 Thailand 1977   44148285 62.49400   1961.2246
## 1531                 Thailand 1982   48827160 64.59700   2393.2198
## 1532                 Thailand 1987   52910342 66.08400   2982.6538
## 1533                 Thailand 1992   56667095 67.29800   4616.8965
## 1534                 Thailand 1997   60216677 67.52100   5852.6255
## 1535                 Thailand 2002   62806748 68.56400   5913.1875
## 1536                 Thailand 2007   65068149 70.61600   7458.3963
## 1537                     Togo 1952    1219113 38.59600    859.8087
## 1538                     Togo 1957    1357445 41.20800    925.9083
## 1539                     Togo 1962    1528098 43.92200   1067.5348
## 1540                     Togo 1967    1735550 46.76900   1477.5968
## 1541                     Togo 1972    2056351 49.75900   1649.6602
## 1542                     Togo 1977    2308582 52.88700   1532.7770
## 1543                     Togo 1982    2644765 55.47100   1344.5780
## 1544                     Togo 1987    3154264 56.94100   1202.2014
## 1545                     Togo 1992    3747553 58.06100   1034.2989
## 1546                     Togo 1997    4320890 58.39000    982.2869
## 1547                     Togo 2002    4977378 57.56100    886.2206
## 1548                     Togo 2007    5701579 58.42000    882.9699
## 1549      Trinidad and Tobago 1952     662850 59.10000   3023.2719
## 1550      Trinidad and Tobago 1957     764900 61.80000   4100.3934
## 1551      Trinidad and Tobago 1962     887498 64.90000   4997.5240
## 1552      Trinidad and Tobago 1967     960155 65.40000   5621.3685
## 1553      Trinidad and Tobago 1972     975199 65.90000   6619.5514
## 1554      Trinidad and Tobago 1977    1039009 68.30000   7899.5542
## 1555      Trinidad and Tobago 1982    1116479 68.83200   9119.5286
## 1556      Trinidad and Tobago 1987    1191336 69.58200   7388.5978
## 1557      Trinidad and Tobago 1992    1183669 69.86200   7370.9909
## 1558      Trinidad and Tobago 1997    1138101 69.46500   8792.5731
## 1559      Trinidad and Tobago 2002    1101832 68.97600  11460.6002
## 1560      Trinidad and Tobago 2007    1056608 69.81900  18008.5092
## 1561                  Tunisia 1952    3647735 44.60000   1468.4756
## 1562                  Tunisia 1957    3950849 47.10000   1395.2325
## 1563                  Tunisia 1962    4286552 49.57900   1660.3032
## 1564                  Tunisia 1967    4786986 52.05300   1932.3602
## 1565                  Tunisia 1972    5303507 55.60200   2753.2860
## 1566                  Tunisia 1977    6005061 59.83700   3120.8768
## 1567                  Tunisia 1982    6734098 64.04800   3560.2332
## 1568                  Tunisia 1987    7724976 66.89400   3810.4193
## 1569                  Tunisia 1992    8523077 70.00100   4332.7202
## 1570                  Tunisia 1997    9231669 71.97300   4876.7986
## 1571                  Tunisia 2002    9770575 73.04200   5722.8957
## 1572                  Tunisia 2007   10276158 73.92300   7092.9230
## 1573                   Turkey 1952   22235677 43.58500   1969.1010
## 1574                   Turkey 1957   25670939 48.07900   2218.7543
## 1575                   Turkey 1962   29788695 52.09800   2322.8699
## 1576                   Turkey 1967   33411317 54.33600   2826.3564
## 1577                   Turkey 1972   37492953 57.00500   3450.6964
## 1578                   Turkey 1977   42404033 59.50700   4269.1223
## 1579                   Turkey 1982   47328791 61.03600   4241.3563
## 1580                   Turkey 1987   52881328 63.10800   5089.0437
## 1581                   Turkey 1992   58179144 66.14600   5678.3483
## 1582                   Turkey 1997   63047647 68.83500   6601.4299
## 1583                   Turkey 2002   67308928 70.84500   6508.0857
## 1584                   Turkey 2007   71158647 71.77700   8458.2764
## 1585                   Uganda 1952    5824797 39.97800    734.7535
## 1586                   Uganda 1957    6675501 42.57100    774.3711
## 1587                   Uganda 1962    7688797 45.34400    767.2717
## 1588                   Uganda 1967    8900294 48.05100    908.9185
## 1589                   Uganda 1972   10190285 51.01600    950.7359
## 1590                   Uganda 1977   11457758 50.35000    843.7331
## 1591                   Uganda 1982   12939400 49.84900    682.2662
## 1592                   Uganda 1987   15283050 51.50900    617.7244
## 1593                   Uganda 1992   18252190 48.82500    644.1708
## 1594                   Uganda 1997   21210254 44.57800    816.5591
## 1595                   Uganda 2002   24739869 47.81300    927.7210
## 1596                   Uganda 2007   29170398 51.54200   1056.3801
## 1597           United Kingdom 1952   50430000 69.18000   9979.5085
## 1598           United Kingdom 1957   51430000 70.42000  11283.1779
## 1599           United Kingdom 1962   53292000 70.76000  12477.1771
## 1600           United Kingdom 1967   54959000 71.36000  14142.8509
## 1601           United Kingdom 1972   56079000 72.01000  15895.1164
## 1602           United Kingdom 1977   56179000 72.76000  17428.7485
## 1603           United Kingdom 1982   56339704 74.04000  18232.4245
## 1604           United Kingdom 1987   56981620 75.00700  21664.7877
## 1605           United Kingdom 1992   57866349 76.42000  22705.0925
## 1606           United Kingdom 1997   58808266 77.21800  26074.5314
## 1607           United Kingdom 2002   59912431 78.47100  29478.9992
## 1608           United Kingdom 2007   60776238 79.42500  33203.2613
## 1609            United States 1952  157553000 68.44000  13990.4821
## 1610            United States 1957  171984000 69.49000  14847.1271
## 1611            United States 1962  186538000 70.21000  16173.1459
## 1612            United States 1967  198712000 70.76000  19530.3656
## 1613            United States 1972  209896000 71.34000  21806.0359
## 1614            United States 1977  220239000 73.38000  24072.6321
## 1615            United States 1982  232187835 74.65000  25009.5591
## 1616            United States 1987  242803533 75.02000  29884.3504
## 1617            United States 1992  256894189 76.09000  32003.9322
## 1618            United States 1997  272911760 76.81000  35767.4330
## 1619            United States 2002  287675526 77.31000  39097.0995
## 1620            United States 2007  301139947 78.24200  42951.6531
## 1621                  Uruguay 1952    2252965 66.07100   5716.7667
## 1622                  Uruguay 1957    2424959 67.04400   6150.7730
## 1623                  Uruguay 1962    2598466 68.25300   5603.3577
## 1624                  Uruguay 1967    2748579 68.46800   5444.6196
## 1625                  Uruguay 1972    2829526 68.67300   5703.4089
## 1626                  Uruguay 1977    2873520 69.48100   6504.3397
## 1627                  Uruguay 1982    2953997 70.80500   6920.2231
## 1628                  Uruguay 1987    3045153 71.91800   7452.3990
## 1629                  Uruguay 1992    3149262 72.75200   8137.0048
## 1630                  Uruguay 1997    3262838 74.22300   9230.2407
## 1631                  Uruguay 2002    3363085 75.30700   7727.0020
## 1632                  Uruguay 2007    3447496 76.38400  10611.4630
## 1633                Venezuela 1952    5439568 55.08800   7689.7998
## 1634                Venezuela 1957    6702668 57.90700   9802.4665
## 1635                Venezuela 1962    8143375 60.77000   8422.9742
## 1636                Venezuela 1967    9709552 63.47900   9541.4742
## 1637                Venezuela 1972   11515649 65.71200  10505.2597
## 1638                Venezuela 1977   13503563 67.45600  13143.9510
## 1639                Venezuela 1982   15620766 68.55700  11152.4101
## 1640                Venezuela 1987   17910182 70.19000   9883.5846
## 1641                Venezuela 1992   20265563 71.15000  10733.9263
## 1642                Venezuela 1997   22374398 72.14600  10165.4952
## 1643                Venezuela 2002   24287670 72.76600   8605.0478
## 1644                Venezuela 2007   26084662 73.74700  11415.8057
## 1645                  Vietnam 1952   26246839 40.41200    605.0665
## 1646                  Vietnam 1957   28998543 42.88700    676.2854
## 1647                  Vietnam 1962   33796140 45.36300    772.0492
## 1648                  Vietnam 1967   39463910 47.83800    637.1233
## 1649                  Vietnam 1972   44655014 50.25400    699.5016
## 1650                  Vietnam 1977   50533506 55.76400    713.5371
## 1651                  Vietnam 1982   56142181 58.81600    707.2358
## 1652                  Vietnam 1987   62826491 62.82000    820.7994
## 1653                  Vietnam 1992   69940728 67.66200    989.0231
## 1654                  Vietnam 1997   76048996 70.67200   1385.8968
## 1655                  Vietnam 2002   80908147 73.01700   1764.4567
## 1656                  Vietnam 2007   85262356 74.24900   2441.5764
## 1657       West Bank and Gaza 1952    1030585 43.16000   1515.5923
## 1658       West Bank and Gaza 1957    1070439 45.67100   1827.0677
## 1659       West Bank and Gaza 1962    1133134 48.12700   2198.9563
## 1660       West Bank and Gaza 1967    1142636 51.63100   2649.7150
## 1661       West Bank and Gaza 1972    1089572 56.53200   3133.4093
## 1662       West Bank and Gaza 1977    1261091 60.76500   3682.8315
## 1663       West Bank and Gaza 1982    1425876 64.40600   4336.0321
## 1664       West Bank and Gaza 1987    1691210 67.04600   5107.1974
## 1665       West Bank and Gaza 1992    2104779 69.71800   6017.6548
## 1666       West Bank and Gaza 1997    2826046 71.09600   7110.6676
## 1667       West Bank and Gaza 2002    3389578 72.37000   4515.4876
## 1668       West Bank and Gaza 2007    4018332 73.42200   3025.3498
## 1669               Yemen Rep. 1952    4963829 32.54800    781.7176
## 1670               Yemen Rep. 1957    5498090 33.97000    804.8305
## 1671               Yemen Rep. 1962    6120081 35.18000    825.6232
## 1672               Yemen Rep. 1967    6740785 36.98400    862.4421
## 1673               Yemen Rep. 1972    7407075 39.84800   1265.0470
## 1674               Yemen Rep. 1977    8403990 44.17500   1829.7652
## 1675               Yemen Rep. 1982    9657618 49.11300   1977.5570
## 1676               Yemen Rep. 1987   11219340 52.92200   1971.7415
## 1677               Yemen Rep. 1992   13367997 55.59900   1879.4967
## 1678               Yemen Rep. 1997   15826497 58.02000   2117.4845
## 1679               Yemen Rep. 2002   18701257 60.30800   2234.8208
## 1680               Yemen Rep. 2007   22211743 62.69800   2280.7699
## 1681                   Zambia 1952    2672000 42.03800   1147.3888
## 1682                   Zambia 1957    3016000 44.07700   1311.9568
## 1683                   Zambia 1962    3421000 46.02300   1452.7258
## 1684                   Zambia 1967    3900000 47.76800   1777.0773
## 1685                   Zambia 1972    4506497 50.10700   1773.4983
## 1686                   Zambia 1977    5216550 51.38600   1588.6883
## 1687                   Zambia 1982    6100407 51.82100   1408.6786
## 1688                   Zambia 1987    7272406 50.82100   1213.3151
## 1689                   Zambia 1992    8381163 46.10000   1210.8846
## 1690                   Zambia 1997    9417789 40.23800   1071.3538
## 1691                   Zambia 2002   10595811 39.19300   1071.6139
## 1692                   Zambia 2007   11746035 42.38400   1271.2116
## 1693                 Zimbabwe 1952    3080907 48.45100    406.8841
## 1694                 Zimbabwe 1957    3646340 50.46900    518.7643
## 1695                 Zimbabwe 1962    4277736 52.35800    527.2722
## 1696                 Zimbabwe 1967    4995432 53.99500    569.7951
## 1697                 Zimbabwe 1972    5861135 55.63500    799.3622
## 1698                 Zimbabwe 1977    6642107 57.67400    685.5877
## 1699                 Zimbabwe 1982    7636524 60.36300    788.8550
## 1700                 Zimbabwe 1987    9216418 62.35100    706.1573
## 1701                 Zimbabwe 1992   10704340 60.37700    693.4208
## 1702                 Zimbabwe 1997   11404948 46.80900    792.4500
## 1703                 Zimbabwe 2002   11926563 39.98900    672.0386
## 1704                 Zimbabwe 2007   12311143 43.48700    469.7093

Note that there are some other packages (e.g. the MASS package) that also have a function called select(). If you happen to load one of those packages after loading the tidyverse package in your session, you may end up with an error that says Error in select(., x) : unused argument (x). To fix this, you will either need to directly call the select() function from the dplyr package using dplyr::select() or ensure that you load such packages before the tidyverse package (which automatically loads the dplyr package).

filter: filter to rows that satisfy certain conditions

Filtering is a very simple way of only keeping rows that satisfy certain conditions. These conditions are always based on logical statements involving variables/columns of the data frame.

For instance, to keep only the rows that have a recorded population of at least 1 billion, you can use a filtering with a logical statement involving the pop variable (again unquoted).

gapminder %>% 
  filter(pop > 1000000000) 
##   country year        pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap
## 1   China 1982 1000281000      Asia  65.525  962.4214
## 2   China 1987 1084035000      Asia  67.274 1378.9040
## 3   China 1992 1164970000      Asia  68.690 1655.7842
## 4   China 1997 1230075000      Asia  70.426 2289.2341
## 5   China 2002 1280400000      Asia  72.028 3119.2809
## 6   China 2007 1318683096      Asia  72.961 4959.1149
## 7   India 2002 1034172547      Asia  62.879 1746.7695
## 8   India 2007 1110396331      Asia  64.698 2452.2104

You can specify multiple filter conditions using a comma (and in this case the filter function will return rows that satisfy all of the conditions specified). Below I filter to rows from 1992 that have a population of at least 100 million in that year.

gapminder %>% 
  filter(pop > 100000000, year == 1992) 
##         country year        pop continent lifeExp  gdpPercap
## 1    Bangladesh 1992  113704579      Asia  56.018   837.8102
## 2        Brazil 1992  155975974  Americas  67.057  6950.2830
## 3         China 1992 1164970000      Asia  68.690  1655.7842
## 4         India 1992  872000000      Asia  60.223  1164.4068
## 5     Indonesia 1992  184816000      Asia  62.681  2383.1409
## 6         Japan 1992  124329269      Asia  79.360 26824.8951
## 7      Pakistan 1992  120065004      Asia  60.838  1971.8295
## 8 United States 1992  256894189  Americas  76.090 32003.9322

mutate: add a new variable

Mutating the data frame involves adding a new variable. This new variable is usually a function of existing variables, but it can also be defined based on external objects.

For instance below I add a new variable, gdp, to the gapminder data frame. gdp is equal to gdpPercap multiplied by pop, and then look at the first 6 rows of the data frame using the classic head() function.

gapminder %>% 
  mutate(gdp = gdpPercap * pop) %>%
  head
##       country year      pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap         gdp
## 1 Afghanistan 1952  8425333      Asia  28.801  779.4453  6567086330
## 2 Afghanistan 1957  9240934      Asia  30.332  820.8530  7585448670
## 3 Afghanistan 1962 10267083      Asia  31.997  853.1007  8758855797
## 4 Afghanistan 1967 11537966      Asia  34.020  836.1971  9648014150
## 5 Afghanistan 1972 13079460      Asia  36.088  739.9811  9678553274
## 6 Afghanistan 1977 14880372      Asia  38.438  786.1134 11697659231

Note that I haven’t re-defined the gapminder data frame, so all I have done here is print out the data frame with the additional gdp variable.

If you wanted to be able to use this gdp variable down the line, you would need to re-define the gapminder data frame so that gapminder now corresponds to the version with the gdp variable.

gapminder <- gapminder %>% 
  mutate(gdp = gdpPercap * pop)

arrange: arrange the rows of the data frame in order a variable

The arrange function allows you to easily reorder the rows of the data frame in increasing or decreasing order of one (or more) of the variables of the data frame.

For instance, you could arrange all rows in the data frame in order of increasing life expectancy.

gapminder %>% 
  arrange(lifeExp) %>%
  head
##        country year     pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap         gdp
## 1       Rwanda 1992 7290203    Africa  23.599  737.0686  5373379682
## 2  Afghanistan 1952 8425333      Asia  28.801  779.4453  6567086330
## 3       Gambia 1952  284320    Africa  30.000  485.2307   137960781
## 4       Angola 1952 4232095    Africa  30.015 3520.6103 14899557133
## 5 Sierra Leone 1952 2143249    Africa  30.331  879.7877  1885604185
## 6  Afghanistan 1957 9240934      Asia  30.332  820.8530  7585448670

To arrange in descending order, you need to wrap the variable name in the desc() function.

gapminder %>% 
  arrange(desc(gdpPercap)) %>%
  head
##   country year     pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap         gdp
## 1  Kuwait 1957  212846      Asia  58.033 113523.13 24162944745
## 2  Kuwait 1972  841934      Asia  67.712 109347.87 92063687055
## 3  Kuwait 1952  160000      Asia  55.565 108382.35 17341176464
## 4  Kuwait 1962  358266      Asia  60.470  95458.11 34199395868
## 5  Kuwait 1967  575003      Asia  64.624  80894.88 46514800559
## 6  Kuwait 1977 1140357      Asia  69.343  59265.48 67583801715

Again, if you wanted your data frame to actually be arranged as specified, you would need to re-define the gapminder data frame. But if you only need it for one quick analysis (e.g. creating a summary table), then you don’t need to redefine the data frame.

Below I re-define the gapminder dataset so that the rows are in order of increasing year, and the countries are in alphabetical order within each year (the secondary arrange variable).

gapminder %>% 
  arrange(year, country) %>% 
  head
##       country year      pop continent lifeExp  gdpPercap          gdp
## 1 Afghanistan 1952  8425333      Asia  28.801   779.4453   6567086330
## 2     Albania 1952  1282697    Europe  55.230  1601.0561   2053669902
## 3     Algeria 1952  9279525    Africa  43.077  2449.0082  22725632678
## 4      Angola 1952  4232095    Africa  30.015  3520.6103  14899557133
## 5   Argentina 1952 17876956  Americas  62.485  5911.3151 105676319105
## 6   Australia 1952  8691212   Oceania  69.120 10039.5956  87256254102

group_by: apply other dplyr functions separately within within a group defined by one or more variables

The group_by() function can be really useful if you want to apply a function independently within groups of observations (where the groups are specified by a categorical variable in your data frame). Think of group_by() as splitting your data frame into several separate data frames based on the categorical variable you specify. All functions that you apply to the grouped data frame are applied separately to each group until you specify an ungroup() function.

The code below filters the data frame to only the country-years that have life expectancy above the average life expectancy for their continent.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent) %>%
  filter(lifeExp > mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  ungroup() 
## # A tibble: 873 x 7
##    country  year      pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap           gdp
##    <fct>   <int>    <dbl> <fct>       <dbl>     <dbl>         <dbl>
##  1 Albania  1987  3075321 Europe       72       3739.  11498418358.
##  2 Albania  1997  3428038 Europe       73.0     3193.  10945912519.
##  3 Albania  2002  3508512 Europe       75.7     4604.  16153932130.
##  4 Albania  2007  3600523 Europe       76.4     5937.  21376411360.
##  5 Algeria  1967 12760499 Africa       51.4     3247.  41433235247.
##  6 Algeria  1972 14760787 Africa       54.5     4183.  61739408943.
##  7 Algeria  1977 17152804 Africa       58.0     4910.  84227416174.
##  8 Algeria  1982 20033753 Africa       61.4     5745. 115097120653.
##  9 Algeria  1987 23254956 Africa       65.8     5681. 132119742845.
## 10 Algeria  1992 26298373 Africa       67.7     5023. 132102425043.
## # … with 863 more rows

To check that this does something different than it would without the group_by() (i.e. filtering to the country-years that have life expectancy above the average global life expectancy), compare the distribution of continents from each filter() command using the count() function (another handly dplyr function):

The number of countries from each continent included post-filtering when grouping by continent is:

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent) %>%
  filter(lifeExp > mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  ungroup() %>%
  count(continent)
## # A tibble: 5 x 2
##   continent     n
##   <fct>     <int>
## 1 Africa      282
## 2 Americas    176
## 3 Asia        216
## 4 Europe      189
## 5 Oceania      10

The number of countries from each continent included post-filtering when not grouping by continent is:

gapminder %>%
  filter(lifeExp > mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  count(continent)
## # A tibble: 5 x 2
##   continent     n
##   <fct>     <int>
## 1 Africa       80
## 2 Americas    218
## 3 Asia        224
## 4 Europe      349
## 5 Oceania      24

Notice that when you don’t group by continent, substantially fewer African countries are included since they tend to have lower life expectencies than the global average.

To combine some of the things you’ve just learnt, the code below first filters to the year 2007, and then splits the data frame into groups by continent and adds a row to each group corresponding to the average life expectancy of all of the countries in that group/continent.

gapminder %>% 
  # first filter to 2007
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  # group by continent
  group_by(continent) %>%
  # add a column within each continent corresponding to the average life expectancy
  mutate(continent_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  # ungroup the data frame
  ungroup() %>% 
  # only show a few variables
  select(country, continent, lifeExp, continent_lifeExp) %>%
  head(10)
## # A tibble: 10 x 4
##    country     continent lifeExp continent_lifeExp
##    <fct>       <fct>       <dbl>             <dbl>
##  1 Afghanistan Asia         43.8              70.7
##  2 Albania     Europe       76.4              77.6
##  3 Algeria     Africa       72.3              54.8
##  4 Angola      Africa       42.7              54.8
##  5 Argentina   Americas     75.3              73.6
##  6 Australia   Oceania      81.2              80.7
##  7 Austria     Europe       79.8              77.6
##  8 Bahrain     Asia         75.6              70.7
##  9 Bangladesh  Asia         64.1              70.7
## 10 Belgium     Europe       79.4              77.6

Notice that all rows from the same continent have the same value for continent_lifeExp. Note that even though this example defines a single value for each continent, this value is repeated for all rows within the continent.

summarise/summarize: define a variable that is a summary of other variables

The summarise() (or summarize()) function aggregates across the rows of the data frame. For instance, you can calculate the average life expectancy, as well as the total GDP.

gapminder %>% 
  summarise(mean_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp),
            total_gdp = sum(gdp))
##   mean_lifeExp    total_gdp
## 1     59.47444 3.183235e+14

The summarise function plays very nicely with the group_by() function. For instance, by first grouping by year and then calculating the average life expectancy and total GDP for each year.

gapminder %>% 
  group_by(year) %>%
  summarise(mean_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp),
            total_gdp = sum(gdp)) 
## # A tibble: 12 x 3
##     year mean_lifeExp total_gdp
##    <int>        <dbl>     <dbl>
##  1  1952         49.1   7.04e12
##  2  1957         51.5   8.90e12
##  3  1962         53.6   1.10e13
##  4  1967         55.7   1.42e13
##  5  1972         57.6   1.84e13
##  6  1977         59.6   2.23e13
##  7  1982         61.5   2.54e13
##  8  1987         63.2   3.01e13
##  9  1992         64.2   3.45e13
## 10  1997         65.0   4.10e13
## 11  2002         65.7   4.73e13
## 12  2007         67.0   5.81e13

Note that since these are summaries of the data frame itself, I just want to print them out, rather than re-defining the gapminder data frame to be equal to these summaries. And since I won’t be using them for anything other than to look at, I don’t need to define them as a variable.

More dplyr functions

Other dplyr functions that are incredibly useful include:

rename() for renaming variables of the data frame

gapminder %>%
  rename(gdp_per_capita = gdpPercap,
         life_exp = lifeExp) %>%
  head
##       country year      pop continent life_exp gdp_per_capita         gdp
## 1 Afghanistan 1952  8425333      Asia   28.801       779.4453  6567086330
## 2 Afghanistan 1957  9240934      Asia   30.332       820.8530  7585448670
## 3 Afghanistan 1962 10267083      Asia   31.997       853.1007  8758855797
## 4 Afghanistan 1967 11537966      Asia   34.020       836.1971  9648014150
## 5 Afghanistan 1972 13079460      Asia   36.088       739.9811  9678553274
## 6 Afghanistan 1977 14880372      Asia   38.438       786.1134 11697659231

distinct() for extracting the distinct values of a variable

gapminder %>% 
  distinct(continent)
##   continent
## 1      Asia
## 2    Europe
## 3    Africa
## 4  Americas
## 5   Oceania

sample_n() and sample_frac() for taking random samples of rows

gapminder %>% 
  sample_n(2)
##                    country year      pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap
## 1             South Africa 1997 42835005    Africa  60.236  7479.188
## 2 Central African Republic 1967  1733638    Africa  41.478  1136.057
##            gdp
## 1 320371065828
## 2   1969510918

count() for counting the number of rows with each value of a categorical variable

gapminder %>% 
  count(continent)
## # A tibble: 5 x 2
##   continent     n
##   <fct>     <int>
## 1 Africa      624
## 2 Americas    300
## 3 Asia        396
## 4 Europe      360
## 5 Oceania      24

transmute() for doing a mutate and select at the same time: only the variables defined in the mutation are retained.

gapminder %>% 
  transmute(gdp = gdpPercap * pop) %>%
  head
##           gdp
## 1  6567086330
## 2  7585448670
## 3  8758855797
## 4  9648014150
## 5  9678553274
## 6 11697659231

Advanced dplyr practitioners will eventually want to learn about scoped verbs.

Visualization: ggplot2

The first tidyverse package I ever learnt was ggplot2 (the more popular older sibling of the non-existent ggplot1). Ggplot2 is the data visualization package made by Hadley Wickham, and it is based a set of principles called the layered grammar of graphics. The basic idea is that a ggplot graphic layers geometric objects (circles, lines, etc), themes, and scales ontop of data. The form of the geometric object is defined by a geom_xxx() function and the properties (position, size, colour) of the geometric objects that based on the data variables are specified by the aesthetic (aes()) function (within the geom_xxx() function).

The base layer of any ggplot graph is the empty ggplot layer defined by the ggplot() function, which describes the data frame that the plot will be based on. I haven’t told ggplot what type of geometric object(s) I want yet, nor how the variables should be mapped to the geometric objects, so I just have a blank plot.

ggplot(gapminder)

Since you now know about pipes, you could pipe in the data that you want to plot. Piping makes it easy to do intermediate manipulations that you don’t necessarily want to save in the data frame itself, such as only plotting one year’s worth of data

gapminder %>% 
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  ggplot()

Adding geom layers

Next, I will add a “geom” layer to our ggplot object.

Layers are added to ggplot objects using +, instead of %>%, since you are not explicitly piping the LHS into each subsequent layer (we are actually adding a layer on top). The error messages have recently been improved to warn you if you are accidentally using a pipe %>% to add layers to ggplot objects (which, once you start piping everything into everything, becomes an easy mistake to make).

Probably the most common geom layer is geom_point. Inside geom_point(), you will specify the aesthetic mappings from the variables to the geometric objects that you want. For instance, if you want to plot a scatterplot with gdpPercap on the x-axis and lifeExp on the y-axis, then you would add a geom_point() geometric layer with relevant aesthetic function: geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)).

# describe the base ggplot object and tell it what data we are interested in along with the aesthetic mapping
gapminder %>%
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  ggplot() +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp))

We could also add a smoothed trend line layer on top of the points using geom_smooth().

# describe the base ggplot object and tell it what data we are interested in along with the aesthetic mapping
gapminder %>%
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  ggplot() +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)) +
  # add a smoothed LOESS layer
  geom_smooth(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp), method = "loess")

Note that since the aesthetics for geom_point() and geom_smooth() are the same, you might want to just specify global aesthetics in the ggplot() function, rather than layer-specific aesthetics.

# describe the base ggplot object and tell it what data we are interested in along with the aesthetic mapping
gapminder %>%
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  # specify global aesthetic mappings
  ggplot(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)) +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point() +
  # add a smoothed LOESS layer
  geom_smooth(method = "loess")

We could also combine a points geom layer with a line geom layer, or any other type of geom layer. Line plots work well for plotting time series, so below we plot the average life expectancy over time using both point and line layers.

Here you can do some clever combinations of dplyr manipulations with ggplot2 by summarising life expectancy by year and piping the results into a ggplot without having to define any intermediate variables.

gapminder %>%
  # calcualte the average life expectency for each year
  group_by(year) %>%
  summarise(avg_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  ungroup() %>%
  # specify global aesthetic mappings
  ggplot(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp)) +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point() +
  # add a line layer on top
  geom_line()

If you wanted to have a separate line on our plot for each continent (rather than an aggregated line across all continents), you don’t need to add an individual layer for each continent to get the following plot:

Instead, start by also grouping by continent when you calculate the average life expectency by year.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent, year) %>%
  summarise(avg_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp))
## # A tibble: 60 x 3
## # Groups:   continent [5]
##    continent  year avg_lifeExp
##    <fct>     <int>       <dbl>
##  1 Africa     1952        39.1
##  2 Africa     1957        41.3
##  3 Africa     1962        43.3
##  4 Africa     1967        45.3
##  5 Africa     1972        47.5
##  6 Africa     1977        49.6
##  7 Africa     1982        51.6
##  8 Africa     1987        53.3
##  9 Africa     1992        53.6
## 10 Africa     1997        53.6
## # … with 50 more rows

However if you try to use the same code as above to plot a line on the country-year grouped data frame, you get a weird zig-zag pattern.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent, year) %>%
  summarise(avg_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  ungroup() %>%
  ggplot() +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp)) +
  # add a lines layer ontop
  geom_line(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp))

This happens because you now have multiple average life expectancy values for each year, but you haven’t specified which ones go together. To fix this plot, you need to specify how the rows are grouped together (i.e. which variable defines the individual lines) by specifying the group = continent argument in the aes() function of the geom_line() layer.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent, year) %>%
  summarise(avg_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  ggplot() +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_point(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp)) +
  # add a lines layer on top that is grouped by continent
  geom_line(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp, group = continent))

More aesthetic mappings based on variables

So far we have only specified the x- and y-position aesthetic mappings from the data to the geom objects. But you can also specify other types of aesthetic mappings, such as using a variable to specify the colour of the points.

If you want all of the points to be the same colour, you can specify a global point colour argument (that lies outside the aes() function).

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp),
             col = "cornflowerblue")

However, if you wanted to use a variable from the data frame to define the colour (or any other aesthetic feature) of the geoms, you will need to include it inside the aes() function.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                 y = lifeExp, 
                 col  = continent))

Note that the continent variable does not specify the colours themselves: this is done automatically. You can specify the colours you want yourself by adding a scale layer for colour.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                 y = lifeExp, 
                 col  = continent)) +
  scale_colour_manual(values = c("orange", "red4", "purple", "darkgreen", "blue"))

There are lots of types of scales that you can use for every type of aesthetic mapping (including x- and y-positions), and typically scales are specific to whether your variable using in the aesthetic mapping is discrete or continuous.

We could also add aesthetic mappings for other features such as shape, size, transparency (alpha) and more! For example, changing the size based on population:

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp, 
                 col = continent, size = pop),
             alpha = 0.5)

For the line plot example above where we plotted an average life expectancy time line for each continent, instead of specifying a group argument, you could instead specify a colour argument to be continent. This will will automatically group and colour by continent.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(continent, year) %>%
  summarise(avg_lifeExp = mean(lifeExp)) %>%
  # specify global aesthetic mappings
  ggplot() +
  # add a points layer on top
  geom_line(aes(x = year, y = avg_lifeExp, colour = continent))

Other types of layers

So far, we have only seen scatterplots (points) and line plots, however, there are many other geoms you could add, including:

Histograms

Histograms only require an x-aesthetic (the y-aesthetic is a count by default, but you can force it to be a density by specifying y = ..density..).

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() + 
  geom_histogram(aes(x = lifeExp), binwidth = 3)

Boxplots

Boxplots are automatically grouped by the x-aesthetic provided (e.g. continent in the plot below). To colour boxplots, use the fill argument instead of the col (or color/colour) argument.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_boxplot(aes(x = continent, y = lifeExp, fill = continent))

Faceting

You can create a grid (or “facet”) of plots separated by a categorical variable of your choosing (e.g. continent) by adding a facet layer.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)) +
  facet_wrap(~continent, ncol = 2)

Customizing ggplot2

While we have stayed within the default ggplot2 functionalities here, there is a lot you can do with ggplot2. For instance, with practice, you will learn how to produce highly-customized plots by combining many layers together. As motivation, here is a much more beautiful plot that can be made with ggplot2:

gapminder %>% 
  filter(year == 2007) %>%
  ggplot() +
  # add scatter points
  geom_point(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp, col = continent, size = pop),
             alpha = 0.5) +
  # add some text annotations for the very large countries
  geom_text(aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp + 3, label = country),
            col = "grey50",
            data = filter(gapminder, year == 2007, pop > 1000000000 | country %in% c("Nigeria", "United States"))) +
  # clean the axes names and breaks
  scale_x_log10(limits = c(200, 60000)) +
  # change labels
  labs(title = "GDP versus life expectancy in 2007",
       x = "GDP per capita (log scale)",
       y = "Life expectancy",
       size = "Population",
       col = "Continent") +
  # change the size scale
  scale_size(range = c(0.1, 10),
             # remove size legend
             guide = "none") +
  # add a nicer theme
  theme_classic() +
  # place legend at top and grey axis lines
  theme(legend.position = "top")

In part two of this post on the tidyverse, you will see some ggplot2 code (under the guise of learning about factors) that makes this plot:

If you’d like to learn more about ggplot2, such as themes, scales and advanced geoms, check out my more detailed ggplot2 blog post.

If the tidyverse is new to you, I suggest that you stop here for now. Focus on incorporating piping, dplyr, and ggplot2 into every analysis that you do for the next few months (even if it would initially be quicker to use base R versions). When you feel comfortable with your new skills, move onto part two of this blog post and start to incorporate the remaining tidyverse packages (below) into your analytic workflow. Trying to learn everything at once is a sure-fire way to become discouraged. First get comfortable with the main ideas, then learn some more.